Information Center | Home
The Social Construction of Difference and Inequality, 2/e
Information Center
Table of Contents

Help Center

The Social Construction of Difference and Inequality Book Cover

Table of Contents

Table of Contents:

* Indicates new reading.

Part I: Constructing Differences

  • Examining what categories are constructed, how this is done, and why such categories of difference are constructed.

Race & Ethnicity.

  1. Omi, Michael & Winant, Howard. “Racial Formations.” from Racial Formations in the United States: From the 1960s to the 1980s. London: Routledge, 1986.
  2. Waters, Mary C. “Optional Ethnicities: For Whites Only?.” from Pedraza, Sylvia & Ruben G. Rumbaut (eds.) Origins and Destinies. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Co., 1996.
  3. *Ibish, Hussein. “'They are Absolutely Obsessed with Us': Anti-Arab Bias in American Discourse and Policy.” From Curtis Stokes, Theresa Melèndez, & Genice Rhodes-Reed (eds.) Race in 21st Century America, 2001, East Lansing : Michigan State University Press.
  4. Sacks, Karen Brodkin. “How Jews Became White.” from Gregory, Steven & Roger Sanjek (eds.) Race. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1994, p. 78-102.
  5. Social Class

  6. Oliver, Melvin L. & Thomas M. Shapiro. “Race, Wealth, and Equality.” From Black Wealth/White Wealth. New York, Routledge, 1995, p. 11-32.
  7. Mantsios, Gregory. “Media Magic: Making Class Invisible.” © Gregory Mantsios.
  8. Sklar, Holly; Chuck Collins; and Betsy Leondar-Wright. “The Growing Wealth Gap.” Z Magazine, May 1999, p. 47-52.
  9. Barlett, Donald L. & James B. Steele. “Corporate Welfare.” Time, Vol. 152, No. 19, November 9, 1998.
  10. Sex & Gender.

  11. Lorber, Judith. “The Social Construction of Gender.” from Paradoxes of Gender. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1994. p. 13-36.
  12. Fausto-Sterling, Anne. “The Five Sexes: Why Male and Female Are Not Enough.” The Sciences, Vol. 22, no. 2, March/April 1993.
  13. Boswell, Holly. “The Transgender Paradigm Shift toward Free Expression.” from Bonnie Bullough & Vern L. Bullough (eds.) Gender Blending. Amherst, New York: Prometheus Books, 1997. p. 53-57.
  14. Kimmel, Michael S. “Masculinity as Homophobia: Fear, Shame, and Silence in the Construction of Gender Identity.” From Harry Brod (ed.) Theorizing Masculinities, Sage Publications, 1994. p. 119-141.
  15. Sexuality

  16. Katz, Jonathan Ned. “The Invention of Heterosexuality.” Socialist Review, Vol. 20, no. 1, Jan.-Mar. 1990, pp. 7-34.
  17. Bordo, Susan. “Pills and Power Tools.” From men and masculinities, 1, pp. 97-90. Copyright © 1999 Sage Publications.
  18. Rust, Paula C. “Sexual Identity and Bisexual Identities: The Struggle for Self-Description in a Changing Sexual Landscape.” from Brett Beemyn & Mickey Eliason (eds.) Queer Studies: A Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Anthology. New York: New York University Press. 1996. p. 64-86.
  19. Bornstein, Kate. “Naming All the Parts.” from Gender Outlaw: On Men, Women and the Rest of Us. New York: Routledge, 1994. p. 21-40.
  20. Part II: Maintaining Inequalities: Systems of Oppression & Privilege

    • Examining what elements of social structure work to maintain systems of stratification based on constructions of difference.

    Social Institutions


  21. Dill, Bonnie Thornton. “Our Mothers' Grief: Racial Ethnic Women and the Maintenance of Families.” Journal of Family History, Vol. 13, 1988, p. 415-431.
  22. Rubin, Lillian B. “Families on the Fault Line: America's Working Class Speaks About the Family, the Economy, Race, and Ethnicity.” from Families on the Fault Line: America's Working Class Speaks About the Family, the Economy, Race, and Ethnicity. New York: Harper Collins. 1994. p. 89-102.
  23. Coltrane, Scott. “Stability and Change in Chicano Men's Family Lives.” From Michael S. Kimmel & Michael A. Messner (eds.) Men's Lives, Fourth Edition. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon, 2001, p. 451-466.
  24. Hunter, Nan D. “Sexual Dissent and the Family: The Sharon Kowalski Case.” The Nation, October 7, 1991.
  25. Education

  26. Kozol, Jonathan. “Savage Inequalities: Children in America's Schools.” from Savage Inequalities. New York: Harper Collins. 1991. p. 175-184.
  27. Cookson, Jr., Peter W. & Persell, Caroline Hodges. “Preparing for Power: Cultural Capital and Curricula in America's Elite Boarding Schools.” from Preparing for Power: America's Elite Boarding Schools. New York: Harper Collins. 1985. p. 73-84.
  28. Crow Dog, Mary & Richard Erdoes. “Civilize Them with a Stick.” from Lakota Woman. New York: Grove Weidenfeld. 1990. p. 28-37, 38-39, & 40-41.
  29. Sadker, Myra & David Sadker. “Missing in Interaction.” from Failing at Fairness: How America's Schools Cheat Girls. New York: Scribner & Sons. 1994. p. 42-76.
  30. Work & the Economy

  31. Wilson, William J. “Jobless Ghettos: The Social Implications of the Disappearance of Work in Segregated Neighborhoods.” From Ray Marshall (ed.) Back to Shared Prosperity: The Growing Inequality of Wealth and Income in America. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 2000, p. 850-94.
  32. Kirschenman, Joleen & Kathryn M. Neckerman. “'We'd Love to Hire Them But…': The Meaning of Race for Employers.” Social Problems, Vol. 38, no. 4, November 1991, p. 433-447.
  33. Williams, Christine L. “The Glass Escalator: Hidden Advantages for Men in the 'Female' Professions.” Social Problems, Vol. 39, no. 3, August 1992, p. 253-267.
  34. Reuss, Alejandro. “Cause of Death: Inequality.” Dollars and Sense, May/June 2001, p. 10-
  35. The State & Public Policy

  36. Albelda, Randy & Chris Tilly. “It's a Family Affair: Women, Poverty, and Welfare.” from Dujon, Diane & Ann Withorn (eds.) For Crying Out Loud: Women's Poverty in the United States. Boston: South End Press, 1996, p. 79-85.
  37. Cole, David. “No Equal Justice: Race and Class in the American Criminal Justice System.” from No Equal Justice: Race and Class in the American Criminal Justice System. New York: The New Press, 1999, p. 158-168.
  38. Reskin, Barbara. “The Effects of Affirmative Action on Other Stakeholders.” from The Realities of Affirmative Action in Employment. Washington, D.C.: The American Sociological Association, 1998, p. 74-84.
  39. Lipsitz, George. “The Possessive Investment in Whiteness: Racialized Social Democracy and the 'White' Problem in American Studies.” American Quarterly, Vol. 47, no. 3, September, 1995., p. 369-387.
  40. Media

  41. Butsch, Richard. “Ralph, Fred, Archie and Homer: Why Television Keeps Recreating the White Male Working-Class Buffoon.” Copyright © 1995 Richard Butsch.
  42. Lichter, S. Robert & Daniel R. Amundson. “Distorted Reality: Hispanic Characters in TV Entertainment.” from Clara Rodriguez (ed.) Latin Looks. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1997, p. 57-72.
  43. Nardi, Peter. “Changing Gay and Lesbian Images in the Media.” from James T. Sears & Walter Williams (eds.) Overcoming Heterosexism and Homophobia: Strategies That Work. New York: Columbia University Press, 1997.
  44. Beck, Debra Baker. “The 'F' Word: How the Media Frame Feminism.” NWSA Journal, Vol. 10(1), 1998, p. 139.
  45. Language

  46. Moore, Robert B. “Racism in the English Language.” from Racism in the English Language. New York: Council on Interracial Books for Children, 1976.
  47. Zola, Irving Kenneth. “Self, Identity & the Naming Question: Reflections on the Language of Disability.” from Nagler, Mark (ed.) Perspectives on Disability. Palo Alto, California: Health Markets Research, 1993. p. 15-23.
  48. Anzaldúa, Gloria. “How to Tame a Wild Tongue.” from Borderlands: the New Mestiza. San Francisco: Spinsters/Aunt Lute 1987. p. 53-64.
  49. Eitzen, Stanley D. & Maxine Baca Zinn. “The Dark Side of Sports Symbols: Racism and Sexism of Names, Symbols, Gestures and Mascots.” USA Today (magazine), January 2001, Vol. 129, p. 48.
  50. Violence & Social Control

  51. Zia, Helen. “Where Race and Gender Meet: Racism, Hate Crimes, and Pornography.” From Lederer & Richard Delgado (eds.) The Price We Pay: The Case Against Racist Speech, Hate Propaganda and Pornography. New York: Hill & Wang, 1995.
  52. Boswell, A. Ayres & Joan Z. Spade. “Fraternities and Collegiate Rape Culture: Why are Some Fraternities More Dangerous Places for Women?” Gender & Society, Vol. 10, no. 2, 1996, p. 133-147.
  53. Kaufman, Michael. “The Construction of Masculinity and the Triad of Men's Violence.” From Michael Kaufman (ed.) Beyond Patriarchy: Essays on Pleasure, Power, and Change. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1987.
  54. Pharr, S. “Homophobia as a Weapon of Sexism.” in Rothenberg, Paula S. (ed.) Race, Class, and Gender in the U. S., 4th Edition. New York, St. Martin's Press, 1997 p. 565-574.
  55. Part III: Experiencing Difference & Inequality in Everyday Life

    • Examining the impact of constructions of difference and maintaining inequalities on members of society.

  56. Jensen, Robert. “White Privilege Shapes the U. S.” Baltimore Sun, July 19, 1998.
  57. Muzher, Sherri. “It's not Easy Being Arab-American: One Person's Experience.” Media Monitor's Network , September 20, 2001, ( (7 January 2002).
  58. Cose, Ellis. “A Dozen Demons.” From The Rage of the Privileged Class. New York: Harper Collins, 1993.
  59. Cofer, Judith Ortiz. “The Story of My Body.” from The Latin Deli, Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press, 1993.
  60. Cameron, Barbara. “'Gee, You Don't Seem Like An Indian From the Reservation.'” in Moraga, Cherríe & Anzaldúa, Gloria (eds.) This Bridge Called My Back: Writings By Radical Women of Color. New York: Kitchen Table: Women of Color Press. 1983. p. 46-52.
  61. Uehara-Carter, Mitzi. “On Being Blackanese.” Interracial Voice, 1996, p. 56-58.
  62. Ehrenreich, Barbara. “Nickel and Dimed: On (not) Getting by in America.” Harper's Magazine, January 1999, vol. 298, p. 37.
  63. Downey, Annie. “I am Your Welfare Reform.” Harper's Magazine, May 1998, p. 29-30.
  64. Canada, Geoffrey. “Learning to Fight.” from Fist Stick Knife Gun: A Personal History of Violence in America. Boston: Beacon Press, 1995.
  65. Vázquez, Carmen. “Appearances.” From Warren J. Blumenfeld (ed.) Homophobia: How We All Pay the Price, Boston: Beacon Press, 1992.
  66. Ochs, Robyn. “Bisexuality, Feminism, Men & Me.” from Weise, Elizabeth (ed.) Closer to Home: Bisexuality and Feminism. Seattle, WA: Seal Press, 1992.
  67. Part IV: Resistance & Social Change

    • Examining how people working within individual and institutional contexts transform difference from a system of inequality to a system of liberation.

  68. Collins, Patricia Hill. “Toward a New Vision: Race, Class, and Gender as Categories of Analysis and Connection.” Race, Sex, & Class, Vol. 1, no. 1, Fall 1993.
  69. Espiritu, Yen Le. “Cultural Resistance: Reconstructing Our Own Images.” from Asian American Women and Men: Labor, Laws, and Love. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997. p. 98-107.
  70. Solomon, Larry. “'No Evictions. We Won't Move!': The Struggle to Save the I-Hotel.” From Roots of Justice: Stories of Organizing in Communities of Color. Oakland, CA: Chardon Press, 1998, p. 93-104.
  71. Martinez, Elizabeth. “Seeing More Than Black & White: Latinos, Racism, and the Cultural Divides.” Z Magazine, Vol. 7, May 1994, p. 56-60.
  72. Lorber, Judith. “Dismantling Noah's Ark.” from Paradoxes of Gender. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1994. p. 282-302.
  73. Featherstone, Liza. “The New Student Movement.” The Nation, Vol. 270(19), May 15, 2000, p. 11.