Site MapHelpFeedbackGlossary
(See related pages)

absent history  Any part of history that was not recorded or that is missing. Not everything that happened in the past is accessible to us today, because only some voices were documented and only some perspectives were recorded.
activity dimension  In semantics, the extent of alertness, liveliness, or energy that a word evokes. (See evaluative dimension and potency dimension.)
Afrocentricity  An orientation toward African or African American cultural standards, including beliefs and values, as the criteria for interpreting behaviors and attitudes.
age identity  The identification with the cultural conventions of how we should act, look, and behave according to our age.
Anglocentrism  Using Anglo or White cultural standards as the criteria for interpretations and judgments of behaviors and attitudes.
apartheid  A policy that segregated White and Black people in South Africa.
ascription  The process by which others attribute identities to an individual.
assimilation  A type of cultural adaptation in which an individual gives up his or her own cultural heritage and adopts the mainstream cultural identity. (See cultural adaptation.)
attitudes  An individual's dispositions or mental sets. As a component of intercultural communication competence, attitudes include tolerance for ambiguity, empathy, and nonjudgmentalness. (See also tolerance for ambiguity, empathy, and nonjudgmental.)
avoiding style  A conflict management strategy characterized in U.S. cultural contexts by a low concern for the self and others. In some other cultural contexts, however, this strategy may be seen as tactical in maintaining harmonious relationships.
avowal  The process by which an individual portrays him- or herself.
bilingual  The ability to speak two languages fluently or at least competently.
chronemics  The concept of time and the rules that govern its use.
class identity  A sense of belonging to a group that shares similar economic, occupational, or social status.
co-cultural group  Nondominant cultural groups that exist in a national culture, such as African American or Chinese American.
code switching  A technical term in communication that refers to the phenomenon of changing languages, dialects, or even accents.
cognitive consistency  Having a logical connection between existing knowledge and a new stimulus.
collectivistic  The tendency to focus on the goals, needs, and views of the ingroup rather than individuals' own goals, needs, and views. (Compare with individualistic.)
colonial histories  The histories that legitimate international invasions and annexations.
colonialism  (a) The system by which groups with diverse languages, cultures, religions, and identities were united to form one state, usually by European power; (b) the system by which a country maintains power over other countries or groups of people to exploit them economically, politically, and culturally.
communication  A symbolic process whereby reality is produced, maintained, repaired, and transformed.
communication accommodation theory  The view that individuals adjust their verbal communication to facilitate understanding.
communication ritual  A set form of systematic interactions that take place on a regular basis.
communication style  The metamessage that contextualizes how listeners are expected to accept and interpret verbal messages.
complementarity principle  A principle of relational attraction that suggests that sometimes we are attracted to people who are different from us.
compromise style  A style of interaction for an intercultural couple in which both partners give up some part of their own cultural habits and beliefs to minimize cross-cultural differences. (Compare with consensus style, obliteration style, and submission style.)
compromising style  A conflict management strategy that involves sharing and exchanging information to the extent that both individuals give up something to find a mutually acceptable decision.
conceptual equivalence  The similarity of linguistic terms and meanings across cultures. (See also translation equivalence.)
conflict  The interference between two or more interdependent individuals or groups of people who perceive incompatible goals, values, or expectations in attaining those ends.
confrontation  Direct resistance, often to the dominant forces.
conscious competence  One of four levels of intercultural communication competence, the practice of intentional, analytic thinking and learning.
conscious incompetence  One of four levels of intercultural communication competence, the awareness that one is not having success but the inability to figure out why.
consensus style  A style of interaction for an intercultural couple in which partners deal with cross-cultural differences by negotiating their relationship. (Compare with compromise style, obliteration style, and submission style.)
contact cultures  Cultural groups in which people tend to stand close together and touch frequently when they interact—for example, cultural groups in South America, the Middle East, and southern Europe. (See noncontact cultures.)
contact hypothesis  The notion that better communication between groups is facilitated simply by putting people together in the same place and allowing them to interact.
core symbols  The fundamental beliefs that are shared by the members of a cultural group. Labels, a category of core symbols, are names or markers used to classify individual, social, or cultural groups.
creole  The form of language that emerges when speakers of several languages are in long-lasting contact with each other; creole has characteristics of both languages.
critical approach  A metatheoretical approach that includes many assumptions of the interpretive approach but that focuses more on macrocontexts, such as the political and social structures that influence communication. (Compare with interpretive approach and functionalist approach.)
cross-cultural training  Training people to become familiar with other cultural norms and to improve their interactions with people of different domestic and international cultures.
cultural adaptation  A process by which individuals learn the rules and customs of new cultural contexts.
cultural-group histories  The history of each cultural group within a nation that includes, for example, the history of where the group originated, why the people migrated, and how they came to develop and maintain their cultural traits.
cultural imperialism  Domination through the spread of cultural products.
cultural space  The particular configuration of the communication that constructs meanings of various places.
cultural studies  Studies that focus on dynamic, everyday representations of cultural struggles. Cultural studies is multidisciplinary in nature and is committed to social change.
cultural texts  Cultural artifacts (magazines, TV programs, movies, and so on) that convey cultural norms, values, and beliefs.
cultural values  The worldview of a cultural group and its set of deeply held beliefs.
culture  Learned patterns of behavior and attitudes shared by a group of people.
culture brokers  Individuals who act as bridges between cultures, facilitating cross-cultural interaction and conflict.
culture industries  Industries that produce and sell popular culture as commodities.
culture shock  A relatively short-term feeling of disorientation and discomfort due to the lack of familiar cues in the environment.
D.I.E. exercise  A device that helps us determine if we are communicating at a descriptive, interpretive, or evaluative level. Only descriptive statements are nonjudgmental.
deception  The act of making someone believe what is not true.
demographics  The characteristics of a population, especially as classified by age, sex, and income.
dialectic  (a) A method of logic based on the principle that an idea generates its opposite, leading to a reconciliation of the opposites; (b) the complex and paradoxical relationship between two opposite qualities or entities, each of which may also be referred to as a dialectic.
dialectical approach  An approach to intercultural communication that integrates three approaches—functionalist (or social science), interpretive, and critical—in understanding culture and communication. It recognizes and accepts that the three approaches are interconnected and sometimes contradictory.
dialogue  Conversation that is "slow, careful, full of feeling, respectful and attentive" (Wilmot & Hocker, 2001, p. 257).
diaspora  A massive migration often caused by war, famine, or persecution that results in the dispersal of a unified group.
diasporic histories  The histories of the ways in which international cultural groups were created through transnational migrations, slavery, religious crusades, or other historical forces.
discourse  The ways in which language is actually used by particular communities of people, in particular contexts, for particular purposes.
discrimination  Behaviors resulting from stereotypes or prejudice that cause some people to be denied equal participation or rights based on cultural group membership, such as race.
distance zones  The area, defined by physical space, within which people interact, according to Edward Hall's theory of proxemics. The four distance zones for individuals are intimate, personal, social, and public. (See also proxemics.)
diversity  The quality of being different.
diversity training  The training meant to facilitate intercultural communication among various gender, ethnic, and racial groups in the United States.
dominating style  A conflict management strategy whereby an individual achieves his or her goal at the expense of others' needs.
electronic colonialism  Domination or exploitation utilizing technological forms.
emic  A term stemming from phonemic. The emic way of inquiry focuses on understanding communication patterns from inside a particular cultural community or context. (Compare with etic.)
empathy  The capacity to "walk in another person's shoes."
enclaves  (a) The territories that are surrounded by another country's territory; (b) cultural minority groups that live within a larger cultural group's territory.
equivalency  An issue in translation, the condition of being equal in meaning, value, quantity, and so on.
ethics  Principles of conduct that help govern behaviors of individuals and groups.
ethnic histories  The histories of ethnic groups.
ethnic identity  (a) A set of ideas about one's own ethnic group membership; (b) a sense of belonging to a particular group and knowing something about the shared experience of the group.
ethnocentrism  (a) An orientation toward one's own ethnic group; (b) a tendency to elevate one's own culture above others.
ethnography  A discipline that examines the patterned interactions and significant symbols of specific cultural groups to identify the cultural norms that guide their behaviors, usually based on field studies.
ethnography of communication  A specialized area of study within communication. Taking an interpretive perspective, scholars analyze verbal and nonverbal activities that have symbolic significance for the members of cultural groups to understand the rules and patterns followed by the groups. (See interpretive approach.)
etic  A term stemming from phonetic. The etic inquiry searches for universal generalizations across cultures from a distance. (Compare with emic.)
evaluative dimension  In semantics, the value-oriented associations of a word—whether the word has a good or bad meaning for us. (See activity dimension and potency dimension.)
explanatory uncertainty  In the process of cultural adaptation, uncertainty that stems from the inability to explain why people behave as they do. (See cultural adaptation.)
exploratory phase  The second phase of relational development, in which people try to discover commonalities in the other by seeking information about them. (See also orientation phase and stability phase.)
eye contact  A nonverbal code, eye gaze, that communicates meanings about respect and status and often regulates turn-taking during interactions.
facial expressions  Facial gestures that convey emotions and attitudes.
family histories  The body of knowledge shared by family members and the customs, rituals, and stories passed from one generation to another within a family.
field studies  Formal investigations conducted by researchers in the target culture. The purpose of field studies is to gain insiders' insights.
fight approach  A trial-and-error approach to coping with a new situation. (Compare with flight approach.)
flight approach  A strategy to cope with a new situation, being hesitant or withdrawn from the new environment. (Compare with fight approach.)
folk culture  Traditional and nonmainstream cultural activities that are not financially driven.
functional fitness  The ability to function in daily life in many different contexts.
functionalist approach  A study of intercultural communication, also called the social science approach, based on the assumptions that (1) there is a describable, external reality, (2) human behaviors are predictable, and (3) culture is a variable that can be measured. This approach aims to identify and explain cultural variations in communication and to predict future communication. (Compare with critical approach and interpretive approach.)
gender histories  The histories of how cultural conventions of men and women are created, maintained, and/or altered.
gender identity  The identification with the cultural notions of masculinity and femininity and what it means to be a man or a woman.
global nomads  People who grow up in many different cultural contexts because their parents relocated.
global village  A term coined by Marshall McLuhan in the 1960s that refers to a world in which communication technology unites people in remote parts of the world.
grand narrative  A unified history and view of humankind.
heterogeneity  Consisting of different or dissimilar elements.
hidden histories  The histories that are hidden from or forgotten by the mainstream representations of past events.
high-context communication  A style of communication in which much of the information is contained in the contexts and nonverbal cues rather than expressed explicitly in words. (Compare with low-context communication.)
high culture  The cultural activities that are considered elite, including opera, ballet, and symphony. (Compare with low culture, or popular culture.)
honorific  A term or expression that shows respect.
hyphenated Americans  U.S. Americans who identify not only with being U.S. citizens but also as members of ethnic groups.
identity  The concept of who we are. Characteristics of identity may be understood differently depending on the perspectives that people take—for example, social psychological, communication, or critical perspectives.
identity management  The way individuals make sense of their multiple images concerning the sense of self in different social contexts.
identity tourism  A concept that refers to people taking on the identities of other races, gender, classes, or sexual orientation for recreational purposes.
immigrants  People who come to a new country, region, or environment to settle more or less permanently. (Compare with sojourners.)
incompatibility  A state of incongruity in goals, values, or expectations between two or more individuals.
individualistic  The tendency to emphasize individual identities, beliefs, needs, goals, and views rather than those of the group. (Compare with collectivistic.)
integrating style  A conflict management strategy characterized by the open and direct exchange of information in an attempt to reach a solution acceptable to both parties.
integration  A type of cultural adaptation in which individuals maintain both their original culture and their daily interactions with other groups. (See also cultural adaptation.)
intellectual histories  Written histories that focus on the development of ideas.
intercultural alliances  Bonds between individuals or groups across cultures characterized by a shared recognition of power and the impact of history and by an orientation of affirmation.
intercultural communication  The interaction between people of different cultural backgrounds.
intercultural competence  The ability to behave effectively and appropriately in interacting across cultures.
intercultural conflict  Conflict between two or more cultural groups.
intercultural identity  Identity based on two or more cultural frames of reference.
intercultural relationships  Relationships that are formed between individuals from different cultures.
interdisciplinary  Integrating knowledge from different disciplines in conducting research and constructing theory.
interlanguage  A kind of communication that emerges when speakers of one language are speaking in another language. The native language's semantics, syntactics, pragmatics, phonetics, and language styles often overlap and create a third way of communicating.
intermediary  In a formal setting, a professional third party, such as a lawyer, real estate agent, or counselor, who intervenes when two parties are in conflict. Informal intermediaries may be friends or colleagues who intervene.
international conflicts  Conflicts between two or more nations.
International Phonetic Alphabet  An alphabet developed to help linguists transcribe the pronunciation of words in different languages.
interpellation  The communication process by which one is pulled into the social forces that place people into a specific identity.
interpretation  The process of verbally expressing what is said or written in another language.
interpretive approach  An approach to intercultural communication that aims to understand and describe human behavior within specific cultural groups based on the assumptions that (1) human experience is subjective, (2) human behavior is creative rather than determined or easily predicted, and (3) culture is created and maintained through communication. (Compare with critical approach and functionalist approach.)
intimacy  The extent of emotional closeness.
knowledge  As an individual component of intercultural communication competence, the quality of knowing about oneself (that is, one's strengths and weaknesses), others, and various aspects of communication.
la langue  The entire system of a language. (Compare with la parole.)
language acquisition  The process of learning language.
language policies  Laws or customs that determine which language will be spoken, when and where.
la parole  In linguistics or semiotics, a term that means discourse or language in use. (Compare with la langue.)
lingua franca  A commonly shared language that is used as a medium of communication between people of different languages.
linguistic knowledge  Knowledge of other languages besides one's native language or of the difficulty of learning a second or third language.
long-term refugees  People who are forced to relocate permanently because of war, famine, and oppression.
long-term versus short-term orientation  A cultural variability dimension that reflects a cultural-group orientation toward virtue or truth. The long-term orientation emphasizes virtue whereas the short-term orientation emphasizes truth.
low-context communication  A style of communication in which much of the information is conveyed in words rather than in nonverbal cues and contexts. (Compare with high-context communication.)
low culture  The non-elite activities seen as the opposite of high culture—for example, movies, rock music, and talk shows. In the past, low culture was considered unworthy of serious study. With the rise of cultural studies, however, the activities that are associated with low culture have become important representations of everyday human lives. (Compare with high culture. See also popular culture.)
macrocontexts  The political, social, and historical situations, backgrounds, and environments that influence communication.
maquiladoras  Assembly plants or factories (mainly of U.S. companies) established on the U.S.-Mexican border and using mainly Mexican labor.
marginalization  A type of cultural adaptation in which an individual expresses little interest in maintaining cultural ties with either the dominant culture or the migrant culture. (See cultural adaptation.)
masculinity/femininity value  A cultural variability dimension that concerns the degree of being feminine—valuing fluid gender roles, quality of life, service, relationships, and interdependence—and the degree of being masculine—emphasizing distinctive gender roles, ambition, materialism, and independence.
media imperialism  Domination or control through media.
mediation  The act of resolving conflict by having someone intervene between two parties.
melting pot  A metaphor that assumes that immigrants and cultural minorities will be assimilated into the U.S. majority culture, losing their original cultures.
metamessage  The meaning of a message that tells others how they should respond to the content of our communication based on our relationship to them; also known as tonal coloring.
metaphors  Figures of speech that contain implied comparisons, in which a word or a phrase ordinarily and primarily used for one thing is applied to another.
migrant  An individual who leaves the primary cultural context in which he or she was raised and moves to a new cultural context for an extended time. (See also immigrant and sojourner.)
minority identity  A sense of belonging to a nondominant group.
mobility  The state of moving from place to place.
model minority  A positive stereotype that characterizes all Asians and Asian Americans as hardworking and serious and so a "good" minority.
modernist identity  The identity that is grounded in the Western tradition of scientific and political beliefs and assumptions—for example, the belief in external reality, democratic representation, liberation, and independent subjects.
motivation  As an individual component of intercultural communication competence, the desire to make a commitment in relationships, to learn about the self and others, and to remain flexible.
multicultural identity  A sense of in-betweenness that develops as a result of frequent or multiple cultural border crossings.
multilingual  The ability to speak more than two languages fluently or at least competently.
multinational corporations  Companies that have operations in two or more nations.
multiphrenia  The splitting of the individual psychologically into multiple selves.
myths  (a) Theories or stories that are widely understood and believed; (b) in semiotics, the layers of meaning beneath a signifier. (See semiotics, signified, and signifier.)
national history  A body of knowledge based on past events that influenced a country's development.
national identity  National citizenship.
nativistic  Extremely patriotic to the point of being anti-immigrant.
nominalist position  The view that perception is not shaped by the particular language one speaks. (Compare with relativist position and qualified relativist position.)
noncontact cultures  Cultural groups in which people tend to maintain more space and touch less often than people do in contact cultures. For instance, Great Britain and Japan tend to have noncontact cultures. (See contact cultures.)
nonjudgmental  Free from evaluating according to one's own cultural frame of reference.
norms  The rules that people follow or the standards to which they adhere as members of a culture.
obliging style  A conflict management strategy characterized by playing down differences and incompatibilities while emphasizing commonalities.
obliteration style  A style of interaction for an intercultural couple in which both partners attempt to erase their individual cultures in dealing with cultural differences. (Compare with compromise style, consensus style, and submission style.)
orientation phase  The first phase of relational development, in which people use categorical or noninterpersonal information, including social role, age, and similarity to others. (See also exploratory phase and stability phase.)
pacifism  Opposition to the use of force under any circumstances.
paradigm  A framework that serves as the worldview of researchers. Different paradigms assume different interpretations of reality, human behavior, culture, and communication.
perception  The process by which individuals select, organize, and interpret external and internal stimuli to create their view of the world.
performative  Acting or presenting oneself in a specific way so as to accomplish some goal.
phonetics  The study of the sound system of a language.
pidgin  A mixed language incorporating the vocabulary of one or more languages, having a very simplified form of the grammatical system of one of these, and not used as the main language of any of its speakers.
political histories  Written histories that focus on political events.
popular culture  A new name for low culture, referring to those systems or artifacts that most people share and that most people know about, including television, music, videos, and popular magazines.
postcolonialism  An intellectual, political, and cultural movement that calls for the independence of colonialized states and also liberation from colonialist ways of thinking.
postmodern cultural spaces  Places that are defined by cultural practices—languages spoken, identities enacted, rituals performed—and that often change as new people move in and out of these spaces.
potency dimension  In semantics, the degree to which a word evokes a strong or weak reaction. (See activity dimension and evaluative dimension.)
power distance  A cultural variability dimension that concerns the extent to which people accept an unequal distribution of power.
pragmatics  The study of how meaning is constructed in relation to receivers and how language is actually used in particular contexts in language communities.
predictive uncertainty  A sense of uncertainty that stems from the inability to predict what someone will say or do.
prejudice  An attitude (usually negative) toward a cultural group based on little or no evidence.
processual  Refers to how interaction happens rather than to the outcome.
proxemics  The study of how people use personal space.
proximity principle  A principle of relational attraction suggesting that individuals tend to develop relationships with people with whom they are in close contact.
psychological health  The state of being emotionally comfortable in a cultural context.
qualified relativist position  A moderate view of the relationship between language and perception. This position sees language as a tool rather than a prison. (Compare with nominalist position and relativist position.)
qualitative methods  Research methods that attempt to capture people's own meanings for their everyday behavior in specific contexts. These methods use participant observation and field studies.
quantitative methods  Research methods that employ numerical indicators to capture and ascertain the relationships among variables. These methods use survey and observation.
quanxi  A Chinese term for relational network.
racial histories  The histories of nonmainstream racial groups.
racial identity  Identifying with a particular racial group. Although in the past racial groups were classified on the basis of biological characteristics, most scientists now recognize that race is constructed in fluid social and historical contexts.
reader profiles  Portrayals of readership demographics prepared by magazines.
regional identity  Identification with a specific geographic region of a nation.
regionalism  Loyalty to a particular region that holds significant cultural meaning for that person.
relational learning  Learning that comes from a particular relationship but generalizes to other contexts.
relational messages  Messages (verbal and nonverbal) that communicate how we feel about others.
relativist position  The view that the particular language individuals speak, especially the structure of the language, shapes their perception of reality and cultural patterns. (Compare with nominalist position and qualified relativist position.)
religious identity  A sense of belonging to a religious group.
rhetorical approach  A research method, dating back to ancient Greece, in which scholars try to interpret the meanings or persuasion used in texts or oral discourses in the contexts in which they occur.
romantic relationships  Intimate relationships that comprise love, involvement, sharing, openness, connectedness, and so on.
Sapir-Whorf hypothesis  The assumption that language shapes our ideas and guides our view of social reality. This hypothesis was proposed by Edward Sapir, a linguist, and his student, Benjamin Whorf, and represents the relativist view of language and perception. (See relativist position.)
segregation  The policy or practice of compelling groups to live apart from each other.
self-disclosure  Revealing information about oneself.
self-knowledge  Related to intercultural communication competence, the quality of knowing how one is perceived as a communicator, as well as one's strengths and weaknesses.
self-reflexivity  A process of learning to understand oneself and one's position in society.
semantic differential  A way of measuring the attitude or affective meaning of a word, based on three dimensions—value, potency, and activity. (See activity dimension, evaluative dimension, and potency dimension.)
semantics  The study of words and meanings.
semiosis  The process of producing meaning.
semiotics  The analysis of the nature of and relationships between signs in language.
separation  A type of cultural adaptation in which an individual retains his or her original culture while interacting minimally with other groups. Separation may be voluntary, or it may be initiated and enforced by the dominant society, in which case it becomes segregation.
sexual orientation histories  The historical experiences of gays and lesbians.
short-term refugees  People who were forced for a short time to move from their region or country.
short-term versus long-term orientation  See long-term versus short-term orientation.
signified  In semiotics, anything that is expressed in arbitrary words, or signifiers. (See semiotics and signifiers.)
signifiers  In semiotics, the culturally constructed, arbitrary words or symbols that people use to refer to something else. (See semiotics.)
signs  In semiotics, the meanings that emerge from the combination of signifiers and signifieds. (See semiotics, signified, and signifiers.)
similarity principle  A principle of relational attraction suggesting that individuals tend to be attracted to people whom they perceive to be similar to themselves.
social conflict  Conflict that arises from unequal or unjust social relationships between groups.
social histories  Written histories that focus on everyday life experiences of various groups in the past.
social movements  Organized activities in which individuals work together to bring about social change.
social positions  The places from which people speak that are socially constructed and thus embedded with assumptions about gender, race, class, age, social roles, sexuality, and so on.
social reproduction  The process of perpetuating cultural patterns.
social science approach  See functionalist approach.
sojourners  People who move into new cultural contexts for a limited period of time and for a specific purpose, such as for study or business.
source text  The original language text of a translation. (See also target text.)
stability phase  The last phase of relational development, in which interactions are more intense and active, and conversations have more depth and breadth. (See also orientation phase and exploratory phase.)
status  The relative position an individual holds in social or organizational settings.
stereotypes  Widely held beliefs about a group of people.
submission style  A style of interaction for an intercultural couple in which one partner yields to the other partner's cultural patterns, abandoning or denying his or her own culture. (Compare with compromise style, consensus style, and obliteration style.)
symbolic significance  The importance or meaning that most members of a cultural group attach to a communication activity.
syntactics  The study of the structure, or grammar, of a language.
target text  The new language text into which the original language text is translated. (See also source text.)
textual analysis  Examination of cultural texts such as media—TV, movies, journalistic essays, and so on.
tolerance for ambiguity  The ease with which an individual copes with situations in which a great deal is unknown.
tonal coloring  See metamessage.
translation  The process of producing a written text that refers to something said or written in another language.
translation equivalence  The linguistic sameness that is gained after translating and back-translating research materials several times using different translators. (See also conceptual equivalence.)
transnationalism  The activity of migrating across the borders of one or more nation-states.
transpection  Cross-cultural empathy.
U-curve theory  A theory of cultural adaptation positing that migrants go through fairly predictable phases—excitement/anticipation, shock/disorientation, adaptation—in adapting to a new cultural situation.
uncertainty avoidance  A cultural variability dimension that concerns the extent to which uncertainty, ambiguity, and deviant ideas and behaviors are avoided.
uncertainty reduction  The process of lessening uncertainty in adapting to a new culture by seeking information.
unconscious competence  One of four levels of intercultural communication competence, the level at which an individual is attitudinally and cognitively prepared but lets go of conscious thought and relies on holistic cognitive processing.
unconscious incompetence  One of four levels of intercultural communication competence, the "be yourself" level at which there is no consciousness of differences or need to act in any particular way.
variable  A concept that varies by existing in different types or different amounts and that can be operationalized and measured.
W-curve theory  A theory of cultural adaptation that suggests that sojourners experience another U-curve upon returning home. (See U-curve theory and sojourners.)
worldview  Underlying assumptions about the nature of reality and human behavior.

Martin Intercultural CommOnline Learning Center

Home > Glossary