Questions 1 through 4 refer to the following information.
Below are brief descriptions of several writings and speeches that have been important in American history.
Poor Richard’s Almanac—a popular collection of adages, verse, and remarks by Benjamin Franklin published annually from 1732–1757 for the pleasure of the American colonists.The Gettysburg Address—a moving speech delivered by Abraham Lincoln on November 19, 1863, at the dedication of the national cemetery at the Civil War battlefield site. The last sentence of the speech has become a definition of democracy."The New Colossus"—a poem by Emma Lazarus offering shelter and freedom to the world’s homeless, inscribed at the base of the Statue of Liberty.The Jungle—a novel by Upton Sinclair published in 1906. Its descriptions of terrible working conditions and filthy and diseased products in the stockyards and meat-packing industry shocked the nation and spurred passage of the Pure Food and Drug Act and other reform legislation.I Have a Dream—a stirring speech delivered by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial on August 28, 1963, in which King called for an end to segregation and racial intolerance.
Give me your tired, your poor,
Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free,
The wretched refuse of your teeming shore.
Send these, the homeless, tempest-tost to me,
I lift my lamp beside the golden door!
". . . we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain—that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom—and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth."
"To be happy, they tell us we must be content. Right. But they do not teach how we may become content. [Now I] shall give you a short Rule for that. To be content, look backward on those who possess less than yourself, not forward on those who possess more. If this does not make you content, you don’t deserve to be happy."
"There would be meat stored in great piles in rooms; and the water from leaky roofs would drip over it, and thousands of rats would race about on it. . . . These rats were nuisances, and the packers would put poisoned bread out for them, they would die, and then rats, bread, and meat would go into the hopper together."
Question 5 refers to the following information.
Acid rain is caused by sulfur dioxide emissions. In North America such emissions come from coal-burning utilities in the United States and smelters in Canada. Scientists believe acid rain kills trees and fish and other aquatic life; it may even melt stone.
Questions 6 and 7 refer to the following cartoon.
From the San Francisco Examiner.
Questions 9 and 10 refer to the following map and information.
Latitude is a measure of the distance on Earth north or south of the equator. Longitude is a measure of the distance on Earth east or west of the prime meridian. Both are expressed in degrees; for example, 20 degrees north of the equator is 20°N.