
 Contemporary's GED Mathematics Jerry Howett
Whole Numbers
Chapter Outline
Whole Numbers
(See page 17)
Whole numbers are written with the digits 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9.

   Number Values and Facts
(See pages 17–20)
Place value means that the position of each digit in a number determines its value: 
billions

hundred millions

ten millions

millions

hundred thousands

ten thousands

thousands

hundreds

tens

units or ones
The building blocks of mathematics are the arithmetic facts: 
addition facts (for adding and subtracting)

multiplication facts (for multiplying and dividing)
There are many different types of whole numbers:  odd number—not evenly divisible by 2
 even number—evenly divisible by 2
 consecutive numbers—follow one after the other
 prime number—evenly divisible by only itself and 1
 factor—divides evenly into another number

   GED TestTaking Shortcuts
(See pages 24–29)
A round whole number ends with a zero. To round a whole number, follow these steps: 
Underline the digit in the place to which you are rounding.

If the digit to the right of the underlined digit is greater than or equal to 5, add 1 to the underlined digit.

If the digit to the right of the underlined digit is less than 5, leave the underlined digit as it is.

Change the digits to the right of the underlined digit to zeros.
Estimating means finding an approximate answer.  Frontend estimation means rounding each number in a problem to the leftmost place.
The Casio ƒx260 solar calculator can be used for Part I of the GED Mathematics Test.

   Special Topics with Whole Numbers
(See pages 30–38)
A mean, or average, is a number that represents a set of numbers. To find the mean of a set of numbers, follow these steps: 
Add the numbers in the set.

Divide by the number of numbers in the set.
A median is a number in the middle of a group of numbers. To find a median, follow these steps: 
Arrange the numbers in order from smallest to largest.

The number in the middle is the median.
When two numbers are in the middle of a group, the median is the mean, or average, of these two numbers. The mathematical expression 5^{2} means "5 to the second power." 
The 5 is called the base.

The 2 is called the exponent.

The exponent tells how many times to write the base in a multiplication problem.
To find a power, follow these steps: 
Write the base as many times as the exponent indicates.

Multiply the base by itself.

On a Casio ƒx260 calculator, use the x^{2} key.
The opposite of raising a number to the second power is finding the square root of a number. The symbol ÷ means "square root." 
To find the square root of a number, ask yourself, "What number multiplied by itself equals this number?"

To find a square root on a Casio ƒx260 calculator, use the √ key.
A number sequence, or number series, is a list of numbers in a special order. 
To find the missing number in a number sequence, find the pattern that changes the numbers from left to right.


