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Practice Quiz
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A labor organization, as defined in "Basic Labor Law," is any organization that exists for the purpose of dealing with all of the following employee matters except:
A)ongoing training.
B)grievances with employers.
C)rates of pay.
D)conditions of work.
Individuals who do not meet the specific definition of "employee" under the National Labor Relations Act (NLRA), as put forth in "Basic Labor Law," include all of the following except:
B)agricultural laborers.
C)temporary workers.
D)independent contractors.
Although employees do have the right to form or join a labor union, as asserted in "Basic Labor Law," they also retain the right under the NLRA to refrain from joining a union and participating in its activities without fear of negative consequences.
The only union provision not available to an employee of the Phillips Petroleum Company during the first 180 days of their employment, as explained in "Individual "Concerted" Activity Under Federal Labor Laws," is that such employees cannot:
A)make new proposals to the shop steward.
B)make use of time-off provisions.
C)use the grievance procedures if they are terminated.
D)request that their job duties be re-evaluated.
Brandon Ingram, as reported in "Individual "Concerted" Activity Under Federal Labor Laws," requested leave under the Family and Medical Leave Act, but was denied by Phillips Petroleum because:
A)his job description made him ineligible.
B)he had not been with the company for a full year.
C)he did not follow the correct request procedures.
D)the company was not obligated to follow the law.
According to "Individual "Concerted" Activity Under Federal Labor Laws," for the incidents that were later cited in his dismissal, Ingram had received appropriate discipline at the time and the matter was believed closed.
According to "U.S. Labor Law," in the United States, although many workers desire union representation, the actual number of workers belonging to a union is around:
A)5 percent.
B)10 percent.
C)25 percent.
D)50 percent.
Even after a majority of workers have elected to join a union, as explained in "U.S. Labor Law," the employer can still insist that the NLRB become involved and:
A)hold a secret-ballot election.
B)examine the level of coercion that may have taken place.
C)investigate the backgrounds of potential union representatives.
D)hear the employer's reasons why a union would be disruptive.
Under the NLRA, as noted in "U.S. Labor Law," employees are guaranteed the individual right to sue their employer for clear violations of the employment law.
According to "Weingarten Rights in Non-Union Settings," under Weingarten, workers have the right to:
A)protest for increased wages.
B)discuss any of their working conditions with co-workers.
C)have a colleague present during an investigatory interview that might lead to discipline.
D)have a close co-worker examine any official job description or proposed changes.
In the case of Materials Research Corp., as put forth in "Weingarten Rights in Non-Union Settings," the NLRB decided that the right to request the assistance of a co-worker during a potentially disciplinary hearing fell under federal guidelines protecting the right of workers to:
A)free speech.
B)concerted activity for the purpose of mutual aid or protection.
C)not incriminate themselves.
D)protest discrimination.
As explained in "Weingarten Rights in Non-Union Settings," non-unionized workers may need Weingarten rights more than unionized workers because they lack just-cause protections and grievance-arbitration processes.
In the case of Phoenix Transit System, as described in "Labor Pains for Union-Free Employers," the NLRB ruled that the company had committed an unfair labor practice by maintaining a confidentiality rule that prohibited employees from discussing:
A)sexual-harassment complaints.
B)their benefits packages.
C)salaries and raises.
D)task-sharing arrangements.
An example of a work stoppage that would not be permitted to non-unionized workers, as explained in "Labor Pains for Union-Free Employers," would be:
A)a formal strike.
B)organizing to have a large number of workers call in sick on a set day.
C)partial strikes, like work slowdowns.
D)an unannounced walkout.
In many cases, as noted in "Labor Pains for Union-Free Employers," employers can prevent their workers from discussing their wages among themselves.
Some of the advantages e-mail has over using the telephone or writing letters in business communication, as pointed out in "The Impact of Employer E-Mail Policies on Employee Rights to Engage in Concerted Activities Protected by the National Labor Relations Act," include all of the following except:
A)avoiding telephone "tag."
B)reducing paper and postage use.
C)providing a system for saving and commenting upon documents.
D)providing greater privacy for communications.
In general, as explained in "The Impact of Employer E-Mail Policies on Employee Rights to Engage in Concerted Activities Protected by the National Labor Relations Act," the right to regulate matter sent and stored via e-mail is derived from the employer's right to:
A)employ workers at will.
B)control their own property.
C)protect themselves from legal liability.
D)maintain a professional working environment.
In the private sector, as stated in "The Impact of Employer E-Mail Policies on Employee Rights to Engage in Concerted Activities Protected by the National Labor Relations Act," the right to free speech and the right to be free from unreasonable searches and seizures of information provide employees with privacy protections regarding workplace e-mail messages.
According to "The Thirteenth Amendment and the Right to Strike," it is difficult for American workers to win strikes because:
A)the public has so little respect for unionized workers.
B)union wages are already so high.
C)of current U.S. laws.
D)many companies are in bankruptcy.
According to "Does America Need a National Right-to-work Law? (Pro and Con arguments)," the National Right to Work Act would remove sections of federal law that:
A)require workers to join a union if there is one at their place of employment.
B)allow for the formation of unions even if less than a majority of workers wants one.
C)grant union officials forced-dues powers.
D)guarantee time-and-a-half for overtime hours.
Union-negotiated contracts, as maintained in "Does America Need a National Right-to-work Law? (Pro and Con arguments)," often have the negative effect of:
A)reducing pay for the most productive workers.
B)creating a greater number of tasks for each employee to complete.
C)discouraging workers from taking time off for vacations and personal matters.
D)stifling communication between workers and their supervisors.
Insight Research Group, a business-relocation search firm cited in "Does America Need a National Right-to-work Law? (Pro and Con arguments)," claims that state right-to-work laws have no impact on business decisions of where to relocate.
The movement for a living wage, as described in "The 'Living Wage': It Couldn't Do Any Harm," is believed to have begun with a strike on behalf of cafeteria workers at:
A)Yale University.
B)the University of California.
C)the University of Notre Dame.
D)Princeton University.
The living-wage movement, as noted in "The 'Living Wage': It Couldn't Do Any Harm," has had the most success in:
Most economists believe that living-wage ordinances are a bad idea, as explained in "The 'Living Wage': It Couldn't Do Any Harm," in part because they focus on issues such as supply-and-demand curves, rather than more abstract questions of distributive justice.
As maintained in "Palace Coup at the AFL-CIO," dissident leaders believe that the AFL-CIO should:
A)get out of politics.
B)emphasize recruitment of new members.
C)build up its headquarters staff.
D)ally itself with corporate executives.
Arturo Rodriguez, as explained in "Building Strength," prior to becoming the president of the United Farm Workers, was closely connected to Cesar Chavez as his:
C)childhood friend.
With the death of Cesar Chavez, as put forth in "Building Strength," the grower community expected that the union would:
A)become more cooperative.
B)fade away.
C)increase its membership.
D)increase its demands.
According to "Building Strength," the UFW had made no preparations for the future in advance of the death of founder Chavez.
Since George W. Bush has taken office, as noted in "Guaranteeing Opportunity For The Workers," of the 3.2 million U.S. jobs that have been lost, more than 2.5 million of them have been in the:
A)service sector.
B)retail sector.
C)manufacturing sector.
D)knowledge-worker sector.
According to Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., as quoted in "Guaranteeing Opportunity For The Workers," depriving an individual of a job or income is the same as:
D)committing a sin.
During the recent power blackout that was the biggest in U.S.-Canadian history, as pointed out in "Guaranteeing Opportunity For The Workers," the public-safety officers and emergency workers, as well as the electrical, transportation, and utility workers who ensured safety and made swift repairs, were all union workers.
According to "Should Collective Bargaining and Labor Relations be Less Adversarial?" the best model for unions and management to adopt regarding collective bargaining is that of:
A)a poker game.
B)ideal family decision-making.
C)hospital triage.
D)sports teams.
The elementary truth generally ignored by economic texts regarding factors of productivity, as asserted in "Should Collective Bargaining and Labor Relations be Less Adversarial?" is that workers:
A)cannot be treated like other factors on a moral basis.
B)can leave the company of their own free will.
C)often have greater knowledge of the workings of their industry than they are given credit for.
D)cost more to hire and train than they do to retain even in harsh economic times.
In typical negotiating climates, as put forth in "Should Collective Bargaining and Labor Relations be Less Adversarial?" both the union and management make unreasonable claims that are never at first taken at face value.
The NLRB, as explained in "The Developing Law of Neutrality Agreements," held in a case involving Lone Star Steel that an "application of contract" clause was a mandatory subject because it protects the jobs and work standards of bargaining-unit employees by removing economic incentives for the company to:
A)deny preferences to workers with greater seniority.
B)transfer employees to other mines under its control that may not be unionized.
C)try to block changes in the union representing the workers.
D)cancel negotiations with the union.
According to "The Developing Law of Neutrality Agreements," the D.C. Circuit Court refused to enforce the NLRB's decision regarding Pall Biomedical because it determined that prescribing the manner of union recognition at a new facility under a neutrality agreement did not constitute a "direct frontal attack" on the problem of:
A)transfer of work that was facing employees at already organized facilities.
B)anti-union campaigns at non-unionized facilities.
C)the company's refusal to bargain in good faith with the union.
D)failures of the company to follow established due process in matters of discipline.
The Tenth Circuit Court of Appeals, as reported in "The Developing Law of Neutrality Agreements," refused to revisit the NLRB's decision involving Lone Star Steel, as it believed that the Board had adequately considered all aspects of the case.
The protracted dispute involving Cintas and the effort to unionize its workers, as explained in "Who Will Fold First?" should serve as a warning to other companies that wrongly assume that:
A)their workers are satisfied.
B)anti-union efforts will have no effect on public relations.
C)so long as they are not yet unionized, they have little to worry about from national unions.
D)they can prevent union efforts from taking place on their property.
Union membership has been hit hard in recent years, according to "Who Will Fold First?" by all of the following factors except:
A)highly publicized cases of union corruption.
B)distrust of unions on the part of non-unionized workers.
C)the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001.
D)the recent recession.
Prior to the unionizing efforts, as noted in "Who Will Fold First?" Cintas was known for its' admired and profitable status in the corporate world.
Until recently, as pointed out in "E-Organizing, The Next Frontier? Labor Unions Seek Access to Company E-mail Systems," union organizing methods have traditionally relied on all of the following methods except:
C)direct mailing.
D)posters in break rooms.
According to "E-Organizing, The Next Frontier? Labor Unions Seek Access to Company E-mail Systems," in the case of Republic Aviation, the Supreme Court decided that employees have the right to:
A)refuse to hear anti-union messages from their employer.
B)solicit other employees to join a union.
C)speak about work conditions in groups.
D)refuse to divulge to managers the content of their private discussions.
Nationwide, as put forth in "E-Organizing, The Next Frontier? Labor Unions Seek Access to Company E-mail Systems," union-organizing efforts have been increasing, although fewer employees desire the offers made by labor organizations.
Issues regarding legitimate employer needs to access and monitor information on an employee's computer at home, as explained in "PC Use at Home and for Union Organizing--New Challenges in the Wired Workplace," are complicated in that this may:
A)affect the privacy of family members who use the computer.
B)require the employee to transport the computer back and forth to the office.
C)not always be possible, as the machine may be out of reach of the employer.
D)increase costs of maintaining a network link between employees' homes and the office.
In determining how to compensate employees for office work performed at home on a computer provided by an employer, as described in "PC Use at Home and for Union Organizing--New Challenges in the Wired Workplace," the primary factor to be considered is:
A)whether or not the employee is hourly or salaried.
B)whether or not the work could just as well have been done at the office.
C)the reason why the employer provided the computer.
D)how often the employee engages in work-related tasks at home.
Inappropriate employee computer use, such as sending racially or ethnically offensive material via e-mail or downloading pornography, as pointed out in "PC Use at Home and for Union Organizing--New Challenges in the Wired Workplace," can create legal difficulties for employers, even if the worker is using an employer-provided computer at home.
As given in "Collective Bargaining is the Right Step," the key issue before the NLRB concerning Boston Medical Center house staff was whether or not residents and interns were:
A)independent contractors.
B)permitted to work more than 40 hours per week.
D)able to made medical-care decisions.
As presented in "Collective Bargaining is the Right Step," the biggest concern among critics of the NLRB's decision to allow house officers to bargain collectively is:
A)an inability to attract qualified staff.
B)the possibility of work actions by house officers.
C)increased costs.
D)loss of federal grants.
As stated in "Collective Bargaining is the Right Step," before the 1999 NLRB ruling, interns and residents in private hospitals were considered students.
Thousands of former and current Wal-Mart workers are beginning to fight the company on a number of fronts, as put forth in "Up Against Wal-Mart," because they are angered by:
A)staffing shortages.
B)verbal abuse by managers.
C)the lack of promotion opportunities.
D)the disparity between profits and wages.
In one of the first lawsuits against Wal-Mart to go to trial, as reported in "Up Against Wal-Mart," a jury in Oregon found the company guilty of:
A)ignoring accusations of sexual harassment.
B)racial discrimination in promoting.
C)forcing employees to work overtime without pay.
D)providing a dangerous work environment.
Right now, as explained in "Up Against Wal-Mart," Wal-Mart is the world's largest retailer and the largest private U.S. employer.
Fearing approaching competition from Wal-Mart, as described in "Rollback WAGES! Will Labor Take the Wal-Mart Challenge?" some retailers are already reducing wages and benefits, a trend most notable among:
A)clothing retailers.
B)fast-food restaurants.
C)supermarket chains.
The downturn in wages and benefits, as pointed out in "Rollback WAGES! Will Labor Take the Wal-Mart Challenge?" has most significantly affected:
B)paid time off.
D)employee discounts.
The UFCW, as maintained in "Rollback WAGES! Will Labor Take the Wal-Mart Challenge?" no longer knows how to conduct an antagonistic national campaign for organization after its years of friendly relations with regional grocery-store chains.
Labor Ready workers, as explained in "Street Corner, Incorporated," are generally recruited from all of the following except:
A)drug rehabilitation programs.
B)community colleges.
C)unemployment offices.
D)homeless shelters.
According to "Street Corner, Incorporated," most of Labor Ready's workers are attracted to the firm by its promise to:
A)pay them at the end of each day.
B)provide steady work.
C)provide bonuses for speedy completion of jobs.
D)train them for a better job later on.
Once workers have received an assignment from Labor Ready, as noted in "Street Corner, Incorporated," they are at least paid for the time in which they are being transported to the job.
According to "Labor Contract Negotiations in the Airline Industry," the duration of negotiations can be most directly attributable to:
A)customer relations and satisfaction.
B)outside economic fluctuations.
C)flaws in the Railway Labor Act.
D)characteristics of the airline and unions involved in the bargaining.
In order to reduce the strains in the airline industry's labor-relations system, as asserted in "Labor Contract Negotiations in the Airline Industry," the most frequently proposed solution is to:
A)eliminate most of the unions involved in the industry.
B)reform the Railway Labor Act.
C)forbid all forms of strike within the industry.
D)re-implement the regulations of several decades ago.
The airline industry's strained labor relations, as cited in "Labor Contract Negotiations in the Airline Industry," can be traced almost directly to difficulties arising from the September 11, 2001 attacks.
According to "Process, Strategy, and Tactics in Labor-Management Mediation," mediators frequently request that each party involved in a dispute agree to a confidentiality agreement concerning the process in order to prevent having communications made available to the press before they are settled and to avoid:
A)locking either party into a position prior to a final settlement.
B)possible legal liabilities.
C)increasing the hostility levels between the opposing parties.
D)rushed settlements that are unworkable for both parties.
During the opening joint session, as explained in "Process, Strategy, and Tactics in Labor-Management Mediation," a mediator should require both sides to identify all disputed issues in order to:
A)establish the most vital issues on each side.
B)see if there already exists areas where the two sides are close to agreement.
C)establish a means for the mediator to exclude any issues that are brought up later in the proceeding.
D)rule out issues that are clearly unreasonable.
Every mediator, as put forth in "Process, Strategy, and Tactics in Labor-Management Mediation," will bring his or her distinct personality and style, as well as experience, to the process.
Arthur R. Velasquez, the owner of Azteca Foods, as reported in "Tortilla Flap," became the first Hispanic in Illinois to hold any statewide elected office when he was elected:
A)sheriff of his hometown.
B)to the Chicago city council.
C)mayor of Pilsen.
D)a trustee of the University of Illinois.
The main impetus for the workers at Azteca Foods to go on strike, as explained in "Tortilla Flap," was that they:
A)were facing a number of layoffs.
B)changed to a new union.
C)were going to have their health insurance eliminated.
D)felt they were overworked at the factory.
Every single worker at the Azteca Foods factory, as pointed out in "Tortilla Flap," voted for the strike, leaving the company effectively shut down until the dispute was resolved.
During the negotiations reported in "Labor Adversaries Bury the Hatchet," it was revealed that a policy workers especially disliked was one that stated that they could not begin sick leave until:
A)a company doctor agreed that they were sick.
B)they had been with the company five years.
C)they had been ill for two days.
D)they first used all of their vacation time.
As noted in "Labor Adversaries Bury the Hatchet," target-specific bargaining principles dictate that negotiating parties:
A)address all possible problem areas before the actual negotiations begin.
B)be responsible only for data collection on behalf of neutral arbitrators.
C)not identify actual issues until negotiations begin.
D)narrow problems down to only a few key issues.
As pointed out in "Labor Adversaries Bury the Hatchet," in order to symbolize their commitment to better working relationships, labor and management at the company described had a mock funeral for an actual hatchet.
As noted in "The New Deal," the United Steelworkers and the steel companies are surviving the industry's consolidation by:
A)buying raw materials more cheaply.
B)operating under more flexible and less-costly labor contracts.
C)eliminating health benefits.
D)freezing wages and increasing retiree pensions.
As reported in "Labor and Management Build a Prescription for Health," the DaimlerChrylser wellness program:
A)is a negotiated benefit.
B)involves all corporate employees worldwide.
C)has been marked by friction from its inception.
D)has cost the company millions of dollars.
As noted in "Labor and Management Build a Prescription for Health," participation in the DaimlerChrysler wellness program:
A)is mandatory for workers in manual-labor positions.
B)has little effect on employee health costs.
C)is voluntary.
D)is meant to replace physician care.
According to "Labor and Management Build a Prescription for Health," DaimlerChrysler participants in the NextSteps program lowered their health risks while non-participants raised theirs.
Concerning union victory rates in elections, the author of "Deauthorization and Decertification Elections: An Analysis and Comparison of Trends" points out that:
A)union successes have decreased steadily in both union decertification (UD) and representatives decertification (RD) elections.
B)unions have been victorious in the majority of both UD and RD elections.
C)unions are more successful in UD than RD elections.
D)unions are more successful in RD than UD elections.
In comparing the legal requirements for union decertification (UD) and representatives decertification (RD) elections, the author of "Deauthorization and Decertification Elections: An Analysis and Comparison of Trends" notes that:
A)only one of each type of election can be held in any 12-month period.
B)RD elections normally can be conducted only near the expiration of the labor agreement.
C)both elections are subject to the usual contract bar rules of the National Labor Relations Board.
D)holding RD elections precludes holding UD elections within the ensuing 12 months.
As stated in "Deauthorization and Decertification Elections: An Analysis and Comparison of Trends," the potential consequences of a union deauthorization election are more serious than those of a representatives decertification election.
According to "Psychological Contracts in the Workplace: Understanding the Ties That Motivate," the gold standard in employee relations is:
As reported in "Psychological Contracts in the Workplace: Understanding the Ties That Motivate," among the sources of information workers use to interpret their psychological contracts, a particularly important one is:
A)top management.
B)the grapevine.
C)popular media.
D)their immediate boss.
As pointed out in "Psychological Contracts in the Workplace: Understanding the Ties That Motivate," workers tend to favor employers who offer them transactional psychological contracts as opposed to relational psychological contracts.
As reported in "Good Management/Union Relations can be a Sweet Deal," among the managerial decisions that may cause disputes in administering the contract, the most heated issue is probably:
A)work assignments.
B)modifying production specifications.
C)overtime compensation.
D)disciplining employees.
As noted in "Good Management/Union Relations can be a Sweet Deal," the last step in the grievance procedure of most contracts is when the grievance is delivered to the:
B)labor-relations department and union representative.
C)plant or department manager.
D)foreman or first-level supervisor.
According to "Good Management/Union Relations can be a Sweet Deal," unions have no vested interest in resolving employee dissatisfaction through an effective grievance system.
As identified in "Mending Labor-Management Relationships," among the accomplishments during the three years after the Memorandum of Understanding was signed in Alameda was:
A)a new fire chief was selected without input needed from the union.
B)interest-based negotiations training has been extended to all members of the fire department.
C)there was only a small increase in expenditures for overtime.
D)the average number of grievances filed annually was reduced by 10 percent.
As noted in "Mending Labor-Management Relationships," during the years when unsuccessful negotiations were being conducted:
A)neither side was willing to accept arbitration.
B)both sides avoided making the environment accusatory.
C)there was little impact on the labor-management relationship.
D)both parties bore huge costs.
In the negotiation system discussed in "Mending Labor-Management Relationships," all parties must agree to be held jointly accountable for solutions arrived at collaboratively.
As reported in "Nature vs. Nurture," the U.S. Department of Labor identified the characteristics of the High Performance Work Organization as including:
A)highly specialized work teams.
B)authority concentrated in management.
C)labor-management cooperation.
D)primary focus on productivity.
As noted in "Nature vs. Nurture," leadership at the International Association of Machinists and Aerospace Workers contend that the High Performance Work Organization partnerships:
A)are equally effective wherever they are implemented.
B)involve a significant learning curve.
C)reduce the union's voice in policy decision-making.
D)are only successful if they are union-driven.
As observed in "Nature vs. Nurture," a crucial component in most High Performance Work Organizations is decisions made jointly by labor and management.
As reported in "Quaker Oats Co.," the Quaker Oats plant in Danville, Illinois, is reaching its goal with the backbone of its efforts being:
B)positive reinforcement.
D)zero tolerance for failure.
As pointed out in "Quaker Oats Co.," the event that caused the transformation of the Quaker Oats plant in Danville, Illinois, was a:
A)protracted strike.
B)violent episode on the production floor.
C)natural disaster.
D)threat of closure.
As noted in "Quaker Oats Co.," the only bright spot for the Danville Quaker Oats plant in the comprehensive study was the fact that it would cost more to shut down the plant than to keep it going.
As reported in "Ambiguities in Labor Contracts: Where do They Come From?" in determining whether a provision in a contract is ambiguous, the arbitrator will consider as evidence:
A)past practices of the two parties.
B)the negotiating history that produced the contract.
C)the common and ordinary meaning given to the words in dispute.
D)the opinion of either party that the language is ambiguous.
As noted in "Ambiguities in Labor Contracts: Where do They Come From?" when there are two possible interpretations of a contract, the arbitrator will apply the principle that:
A)reasonableness is purely a matter of opinion.
B)the interpretation that makes the provision legally valid should be adopted.
C)the context of a dispute has no bearing on interpretation.
D)general language takes precedence over specific language.
In the example used in "Ambiguities in Labor Contracts: Where do They Come From?" the employee called Molly wanted to be paid for shifts she did not work because of a power failure.
According to "Minimizing the Likelihood of Employment Litigation," an employer's best security against a lawsuit is:
A)employing workers "at will."
B)avoiding employee dissatisfaction.
C)consulting with legal counsel.
D)to never give a reason for terminating an employee.
As noted in "Minimizing the Likelihood of Employment Litigation," laws designed to end discrimination:
A)only apply to firms with 10 or more employees.
B)apply to professional firms.
C)do not apply to state agencies.
D)do not apply to not-for-profit agencies.
As stated in "Minimizing the Likelihood of Employment Litigation," the longer employees have been with a company, the more difficult it will be to justify their termination if they allege discrimination.
According to "The Pivotal Role of Labor-Management Committees," labor-management committees:
A)are widely used forms of worker participation in the private sector.
B)generally are not effective vehicles for changing the workplace.
C)are created during contract negotiations.
D)usually have more labor representatives than management.
As reported in "The Pivotal Role of Labor-Management Committees," a crucial contributor to the success of a labor-management committee is:
A)keeping information confidential on each side.
B)maintaining firmer discipline than is typical in collective bargaining.
C)insulating the process from outside input.
D)maintaining communication.
As stated in "The Pivotal Role of Labor-Management Committees," gain-sharing projects allow a group of employees to realize economic gain if they implement productivity or process improvements.
As reported in "Behavioral Safety: A Necessary Part of the Whole," Behavior-Based Safety initiatives identify the primary cause of workplace accidents and injuries as:
A)poorly designed workplace environments.
B)managers and supervisors.
As noted in "Behavioral Safety: A Necessary Part of the Whole," according to the Hierarchy of Health and Safety Controls, the most effective preventive tool is:
B)elimination or substitution of the hazard.
C)training and procedure directives.
D)personal protective equipment.
As stated in "Behavioral Safety: A Necessary Part of the Whole," actions of some business owners display a blatant disregard for life and the environment.
As reported in "Delphi Gets a Handle on Hand Protection," a Level One protection solution at Delphi is one that:
A)involves engineering controls.
B)eliminates the hazard.
C)reduces the number of injuries.
D)is endorsed by union representatives.
As pointed out in "Delphi Gets a Handle on Hand Protection," the most frequent type of injury at Delphi sites is:
A)burns and poisonings.
D)strains and sprains.
According to "Delphi Gets a Handle on Hand Protection," an investigation of injuries at a Delphi plant is formally closed when the appropriate personal protective equipment is put in place.
The plaintiff in the Greenier case, as described in "Union Liability in Discrimination Cases," alleges that he was discriminated against based on:
B)national origin.
As noted in "Union Liability in Discrimination Cases," the case filed in the District Court in Maine:
A)proved the allegations filed by the plaintiff.
B)was a motion to dismiss filed by the defendant union.
C)required the court to assume that the facts cited could be false.
D)was based exclusively on the theory of acquiescence.
As reported in "Union Liability in Discrimination Cases," unions can only be held liable in discrimination cases if the employer has already been found liable.
As reported in "Dispatches from Decatur: Community is the First Casualty in America's Labor Wars," Terry Howley, new mayor of Decatur, Illinois, contends that:
A)union problems have destroyed the economy of the city.
B)the worst effect of union troubles is felt in small towns around Decatur.
C)hotel occupancy has plummeted as lockouts have continued.
D)replacement workers make no contribution to Decatur's economic life.
As noted in "Dispatches from Decatur: Community is the First Casualty in America's Labor Wars," in his Mater et Magistra, Pope John XXIII wrote that the criterion against which all aspects of economic life must be measured is:
B)the rule of law.
C)charity in the church.
D)the dignity of the human person.
As stated in "Dispatches from Decatur: Community is the First Casualty in America's Labor Wars," the number of strikes called in the United States yearly is steadily increasing.
As reported in "Making Labor-Management Relations Integral to the Management Process," the most important asset of the federal government is:
A)federal tax revenues.
B)extensive property holdings.
C)the people it employs.
D)organizational structure.
As noted in "Making Labor-Management Relations Integral to the Management Process," human-resource managers:
A)should limit themselves to administrative-support functions.
B)are supposed to be defenders of the status quo.
C)are primarily responsible for regulations' compliance.
D)should be involved in planning and decision-making.
As pointed out in "Making Labor-Management Relations Integral to the Management Process," human-resource and labor-relations managers must maintain strict neutrality between management and labor.
As reported in "Union Monopoly is Bad for Teachers," as a result of the National Education Association/American Federation of Teachers monopoly:
A)costs of union membership have gone down.
B)teachers receive inferior services.
C)teachers have the best representation possible.
D)non-teaching school personnel have no representation.
As noted in "Union Monopoly is Bad for Teachers," the purpose of exclusivity clauses is to:
A)weaken the representation ability of unions.
B)raise union operating costs.
C)undermine attempts to dislodge incumbent unions.
D)make unions more responsive to member concerns.
As pointed out in "Union Monopoly is Bad for Teachers," in the states that have not authorized teacher collective bargaining, there is real competition to represent teachers.
As noted in "Trade Unions: The Facts," trade unions have been established the longest in:
C)South America.
The country with the largest percentage of its non-agricultural labor force belonging to trade unions, as given in "Trade Unions: The Facts," is:
A)the United States.
As pointed out in "Trade Unions: The Facts," a much larger proportion of men than women work part-time.
As reported in "Taming the Tigers," a key tool of the new unions in Hong Kong is:
A)the reward system.
C)donations from international sources.
D)social outings.
As pointed out in "Taming the Tigers," the Korean Confederation of Trade Unions is led by:
A)public-sector service workers.
B)the information-technology industry.
C)miners' unions.
D)major heavy-industry unions.
As noted in "Taming the Tigers," Christian non-governmental organizations played an important role in the establishment of the Hong Kong Confederation of Trade Unions.
Concerning the labor movement in Colombia, the author of "Shut Up or Die!" notes that:
A)the majority of the workforce belongs to trade unions.
B)public-sector employees have won the right to collective bargaining.
C)union members are routinely the target of violent assault.
D)banking, oil, and healthcare workers have the right to strike.
As noted in "Shut Up or Die!" Manuel Gustavo Chacon was assassinated because he:
A)refused to join a union.
B)was a leader in the trade-union congress.
C)belonged to a reactionary political party.
D)worked for a large oil company.
As reported in "Shut Up or Die!" the constitution of Colombia makes no mention of human rights.
As noted in "Employment Tribunals: Using Your Last Resort," employment tribunals:
A)have existed since 1974.
B)are intended to be quick, easy means for employees to seek redress.
C)have reduced their areas of jurisdiction since their inception.
D)allow claims to be brought within one year of an event.
As reported in "Employment Tribunals: Using Your Last Resort," Peter Skyte of the trade union Amicus contends that:
A)the Employment Tribunals Service is the best place to resolve employment disputes.
B)the existence of tribunals encourages employers to pay close attention to employee grievances.
C)some employers may only go through the motions when following internal grievance procedures.
D)people should not approach their union until they are ready to go to a tribunal.
As pointed out in "Employment Tribunals: Using Your Last Resort," the overall costs of Employment Tribunals Services hearings have increased substantially.
The data examined by the author of "The "Race to the Bottom" in Imported Clothes" indicates that production of clothing exported to the United States is:
A)decreasing for Central and South American countries and increasing for European countries.
B)rising gradually for almost all countries.
C)increasing dramatically for low-wage countries.
D)decreasing for Asian countries.
As observed in "Are Unions Obsolete? Neuhaus v. O'Connor on Labor," Father Richard John Neuhaus contends that the labor movement in the United States:
A)is obsolete.
B)is contrary to Catholic teaching.
C)has never been stronger.
D)makes no attempt to serve its members.
As pointed out in "Are Unions Obsolete? Neuhaus v. O'Connor on Labor," in 2000 the largest union of healthcare workers published a 12-page booklet to honor:
A)firemen who lost their lives in the line of duty.
B)Ronald Reagan.
C)Cardinal John J. O'Connor.
D)George Meany.
The author of "Are Unions Obsolete? Neuhaus v. O'Connor on Labor" suggests that declines in union membership in industries such as auto workers are due to the disappearance of jobs in the rust belt.
In comparing the union movement of today to that of the 1920s, the author of "A Proposal for a Twenty-First-Century Trade Union Education League: An Attempt to Solve the Crisis of Organizing the Unorganized" notes that today:
A)the National Labor Relations Act is in effect.
B)capital is less mobile.
C)there is no strong government opposition to unions.
D)the number of union members is steadily increasing.
As discussed in "A Proposal for a Twenty-First-Century Trade Union Education League: An Attempt to Solve the Crisis of Organizing the Unorganized," among the rules of the National Labor Relations Board regarding union organizing is the provision that:
A)supervisory personnel may not discuss unions with workers.
B)employers may not lie to workers about unions.
C)employers may require workers to attend anti-union meetings.
D)employers may not shut down a plant if workers vote to unionize.
As stated in "A Proposal for a Twenty-First-Century Trade Union Education League: An Attempt to Solve the Crisis of Organizing the Unorganized," the National Labor Relations Act requires employers to bargain with a union to the end result of a union contract.
Conclusions about the incidence of poverty among working people reached in "The Working Poor in 2001" include that:
A)level of education has no effect on incidence of poverty.
B)teenage workers are more likely than others to live in poverty.
C)there is no significant correlation between race and poverty.
D)Hispanic workers are the least likely to be among the poor.
As noted in "The Working Poor in 2001," occupations with workers among the most likely to be in poverty include:
B)machine operators.
C)private-household services.
D)protective services.
As pointed out in "The Working Poor in 2001," families maintained by men are more likely to be counted among the working poor than those maintained by women.

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