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Hole's Human Anatomy & Physiology, 9/e
David Shier, Washtenaw Community College
Ricki Lewis, The University at Albany
Jackie Butler, Grayson County Community College

Table of Contents

Unit One - Levels of Organization

1 Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology

Anatomy and Physiology/Characteristics of Life/Maintenance of Life/Requirements of Organisms/Homeostasis/Levels of Organization/Organization of the Human Body/Thoracic and Abdominopelvic Membranes/Organ Systems/Anatomical Terminology/Relative Position/Body Sections/Body Regions/Some Medical and Applied Sciences

Reference Plates

The Human Organism

2 Chemical Basis of Life

Structure of Matter/Elements and Atoms/Atomic Structure/Isotopes/Bonding of Atoms/Molecules and Compounds/Chemical Reactions/Acids, Bases, and Salts/Acid and Base Concentrations/Chemical Constituents of Cells/Inorganic Substances/Organic Substances

3 Cells

A Composite Cell/Cell Membrane/Faulty Ion Channels Cause Disease/Cytoplasm/Cell Nucleus/Movements Into and Out of the Cell/Diffusion/Facilitated Diffusion/Osmosis/Filtration/Active Transport/Endocytosis/Exocytosis/Transcytosis/The Cell Cycle/Interphase/Mitosis/Cytoplasmic Division/Cell Differentiation/Control of Cell Reproduction/Health Consequences of Loss of Cell Reproduction Control

4 Cellular Metabolism

Metabolic Processes/Anabolism/Catabolism/Control of Metabolic Reactions/Enzyme Action/Cofactors and Coenzymes/Factors that Alter Enzymes/Energy for Metabolic Reactions/Release of Chemical Energy/An Overview of Cellular Respiration/Glycolysis/Aerobic Respiration/Glycolysis/Anaerobic Respiration/Aerobic Respiration/Regulation of Metabolic Pathways/Nucleic Acids and Protein Synthesis/Genetic Information/Genetic Code/RNA Molecules/Protein Synthesis/DNA Replication/Changes in Genetic Information/Nature of Mutations/Effects of Mutations

5 Tissues

Epithelial Tissues/General Characteristics/Simple Squamous Epithelium/Simple Cuboidal Epithelium/Simple Columnar Epithelium/Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium/Stratified Squamous Epithelium/Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium/Stratified Columnar Epithelium/Transitional Epithelium/Glandular Epithelium/Connective Tissues General Characteristics/Major Cell Types/Connective Tissue Fibers/Loose Connective Tissue/Adipose Tissue/Reticular Connective Tissue/Dense Connective Tissue/Elastic Connective Tissue/Cartilage/Bone/Blood/Muscle Tissues/General Characteristics/Skeletal Muscle Tissue/Smooth Muscle Tissue/Cardiac Muscle Tissue/Nervous Tissues

Unit Two - Support and Movement

6 Skin and the Integumentary System

Types of Membranes/Skin and Its Tissues/Epidermis/Dermis/Subcutaneous Layer/Accessory Organs of the Skin/Hair Follicles/Nails/Skin Glands/Regulation of Body Temperature/Skin Color/Genetic Factors/Environmental Factors/Physiological Factors/Healing of Wounds and Burns/Cuts/Burns/Common Skin Disorders

7 Skeletal System

Bone Structure/Bone Classification/Parts of a Long Bone/Microscopic Structure/Bone Development and Growth/Intramembranous Bones/Endochondral Bones/Growth of an Endochondral Bone/Homeostasis of Bone Tissue/Factors Affecting Bone Development, Growth, and Repair/Bone Function Support and Protection/Body Movement/Blood Cell Formation/Blood Cell Formation/Inorganic Salt Storage/Skeletal Organization/Number of Bones/Divisions of the Skeleton/Skull/Cranium/Facial Skeleton/Infantile Skull/Vertebral Column/A Typical Vertebra/Cervical Vertebrae/Thoracic Vertebrae/Lumbar Vertebrae/Sacrum/Coccyx/Thoracic Cage/Ribs/Sternum/Pectoral Girdle/Clavicles/Scapulae/Upper Limb/Humerus/Radius/Ulna/Hand/Pelvic Girdle/Coxal Bones/Greater and Lesser Pelves/Differences Between Male and Female Pelves/Lower Limb/Femur/Patella/Tibia/Fibula/Foot

Reference Plates

Human Skull

8 Joints of the Skeletal System

Classification of Joints/Fibrous Joints/Cartilaginous Joints/Synovial Joints/General Structure of a Synovial Joint/Types of Synovial Joints/Types of Joint Movements/Examples of Synovial Joints/Shoulder Joint/Elbow Joint/Hip Joint/Knee Joint

9 Muscular System

Structure of a Skeletal Muscle/Connective Tissue Coverings/Skeletal Muscle Fibers/Sliding Filament Theory/Neuromuscular Junction/Motor Units/Skeletal Muscle Contraction/Role of Myosin and Actin/Stimulus for Contraction/Energy Sources for Contraction/Oxygen Supply and Cellular Respiration/Oxygen Debt/Muscle Fatigue/Fast and Slow Muscles/Heat Production/Muscular Responses/Threshold Stimulus/All-or-None Response/Recording a Muscle Contraction/Staircase Effect/Summation/Recruitment of Motor Units/Sustained Contractions/Isotonic and Isometric Contractions/Smooth Muscle Fibers/Smooth Muscle Contraction/Cardiac Muscle/Skeletal Muscle Actions/Origin and Insertion/Interaction of Skeletal Muscles/Major Skeletal Muscles/Muscles of Facial Expression/Muscles of Mastication/Muscles that Move the Head and Vertebral Column/Muscles that Move the Pectoral Girdle/Muscles that Move the Upper Arm/Muscles that Move the Forearm/Muscles that Move the Hand/Muscles of the Abdominal Wall/Muscles of the Pelvic Outlet/Muscles that Move the Thigh/Muscles that Move the Leg/Muscles that Move the Foot/Clinical Terms Related to the Muscular System

Reference Plates

Surface Anatomy

Unit Three - Integration and Coordination

10 Nervous System I: Basic Structure and Function

General Functions of the Nervous System/Classification of Neurons/Classification of Neuroglia/Regeneration of Nerve Fibers/Cell Membrane Potential/Distribution of Ions/Resting Potential/Local Potential Changes/Action Potentials/Refractory Period/All-or-None Response/Impulse Conduction/The Synapse/Synaptic Potentials/Neurotransmitters/Neuropeptides/Facilitation/Convergence/Divergence

11 Nervous System II: Divisions of the Nervous System

Meninges/Spinal Cord/Structure of the Spinal Cord/Functions of the Spinal Cord/Reflex Arcs/Brain/Brain Development/Structure of the Cerebrum/Functions of the Cerebrum/Basal Ganglia Ventricles and Cerebrospinal Fluid/Diencephalon/Brain Stem/Cerebellum/Peripheral Nervous System/Structure of Peripheral Nerves/Nerve Fiber Classification/Cranial Nerves/Spinal Nerves/Autonomic Nervous System/General Characteristics/Autonomic Nerve Fibers/Autonomic Neurotransmitters/Actions of Autonomic Neurotransmitters/Control of Autonomic Activity

12 Somatic and Special Senses

Receptors and Sensations/Receptor Types/Sensory Impulses/Sensations/Sensory Adaptation/Somatic Senses/Touch and Pressure Senses/Temperature Senses/Sense of Pain/Stretch Receptors/Special Senses/Sense of Smell/Olfactory Receptors/Olfactory Organs/Olfactory Nerve Pathways/Olfactory Stimulation/Sense of Taste/Taste Receptors/Taste Sensations/Taste Nerve Pathways/Sense of Hearing/External Ear/Middle Ear/Auditory Tube/Inner Ear/Auditory Nerve Pathways/Sense of Equilibrium/Static Equilibrium/Dynamic Equilibrium/Sense of Sight/Visual Accessory Organs/Structure of the Eye/Light Refraction/Visual Receptors/Visual Pigments/Stereoscopic Vision/Visual Nerve Pathways

13 Endocrine System

General Characteristics of the Endocrine System/Hormone Action/Chemistry of Hormones/Actions of Hormones/Prostaglandins/Control of Hormonal Secretions/Negative Feedback Systems/Pituitary Gland/Anterior Pituitary Hormones/Posterior Pituitary Hormones/Thyroid Gland/Structure of the Gland/Thyroid Hormones/Parathyroid Glands/Structure of the Glands/Parathyroid Hormone/Adrenal Glands/Structure of the Glands/Hormones of the Adrenal Medulla/Hormones of the Adrenal Cortex/Pancreas Structure of the Gland/Hormones of the Islets of Langerhans/Other Endocrine Glands/Pineal Gland/Thymus Gland/Reproductive Glands/Digestive Glands/Other Hormone-Producing Organs/Stress and Its Effects/Types of Stress/Responses to Stress

Unit Four - Transport

14 Blood

Blood and Blood Cells/Blood Volume and Composition /The Origin of Blood Cells/Characteristics of Red Blood Cells/Red Blood Cell Counts/Destruction of Red Blood Cells/Red Blood Cell Production and Its Control/Dietary Factors Affecting Red Blood Cell Production/Types of White Blood Cells/Functions of White Blood Cells/White Blood Cell Counts/Blood Platelets/Blood Plasma/Plasma Proteins/Nutrients and Gases/Nonprotein Nitrogenous Substances/Plasma/Electrolytes/Hemostasis/Blood Vessel Spasm/Platelet Plug/Formation Blood/Coagulation/Prevention of Coagulation/Blood Groups and Transfusions/Antigens and Antibodies/ABO Blood Group/Rh Blood Group

15 Cardiovascular System

Structure of the Heart/Size and Location of the Heart/Coverings of the Heart/Wall of the Heart/Heart Chambers and Valves/Skeleton of the Heart/Path of Blood through the Heart/Blood Supply to the Heart/Heart Actions/Cardiac Cycle/Heart Sounds/Cardiac Muscle Fibers/Cardiac Conduction System/Electrocardiogram/Regulation of the Cardiac Cycle/Blood Vessels/Arteries and Arterioles/Capillaries/Exchanges in the Capillaries/Venules and Veins/Blood Pressure/Arterial Blood Pressure/Factors that Influence Arterial Blood Pressure/Control of Blood Pressure/Venous Blood Flow/Central Venous Pressure/Paths of Circulation/Pulmonary Circuit/Systemic Circuit/Arterial System/Principal Branches of the Aorta/Arteries to the Neck, Head, and Brain/Arteries to the Shoulder and Upper Limb/Arteries to the Thoracic and Abdominal Walls/Arteries to the Pelvis and Lower Limb/Venous System/Characteristics of Venous Pathways/Veins from the Head, Neck, and Brain/Veins from the Upper Limb and Shoulder/Veins from the Abdominal and Thoracic Walls/Veins from the Abdominal Viscera/Veins from the Lower Limb and Pelvis

16 Lymphatic System and Immunity

Lymphatic Pathways/Lymphatic Capillaries/Lymphatic Vessels/Lymphatic Trunks and Collecting Ducts/Tissue Fluid and Lymph Tissue Fluid Formation/Lymph Formation/Lymph Function/Lymph Movement/Lymph Flow/Obstruction of Lymph Movement/Lymph Nodes/Structure of a Lymph Node/Locations of Lymph Nodes/Functions of Lymph Nodes/Thymus and Spleen/Body Defenses Against Infection/Nonspecific Defenses/Species Resistance/Mechanical Barriers/Chemical Barriers/Fever/Inflammation/Phagocytosis/Specific Defenses (Immunity)/Antigens/Lymphocyte Origins/B Cells and Antibody-Mediated Immunity/T Cells and Cell-Mediated Immunity/Immune Responses/Types of Immunity/Allergic Reactions/Transplantation and Tissue Rejection/Autoimmunity

Unit Five - Absorption and Excretion

17 Digestive System

General Characteristics of the Alimentary Canal/Structure of the Wall/Movements of the Tube/Innervation of the Tube/Mouth/Cheeks and Lips/Tongue/Palate/Teeth/Salivary Glands/Salivary Secretions/Major Salivary Glands/Pharynx and Esophagus/Structure of the Pharynx/Swallowing Mechanism/Esophagus/Stomach/Parts of the Stomach/Gastric Secretions/Regulation of Gastric Secretions/Gastric Absorption/Mixing and Emptying Actions/Pancreas/Structure of the Pancreas/Pancreatic Juice/Regulation of Pancreatic Secretion/Liver/Liver Function/Composition of Bile/Gallbladder/Regulation of Bile Release/Functions of Bile Salts/Small Intestine/Parts of the Small Intestine/Structure of the Small Intestinal Wall/Secretions of the Small Intestine/Regulation of Small Intestinal Secretions/Absorption in the Small Intestine/Movements of the Small Intestine/Large Intestine/Parts of the Large Intestine/Structure of the Large Intestinal Wall/Functions of the Large Intestine/Movements of the Large Intestine/Feces

18 Nutrition and Metabolism

Why We Eat/Carbohydrates/Carbohydrate Sources/Carbohydrate Utilization/Carbohydrate Requirements/Lipids/Lipid Sources/Lipid Utilization/Lipid Requirements/Proteins/Protein Sources/Nitrogen Balance/Protein Requirements/Energy Expenditures/Energy Values of Foods/Energy Requirements/Energy Balance/Desirable Weight/Vitamins/Fat-Soluble Vitamins/Water-Soluble Vitamins/Minerals/Characteristics of Minerals/Major Minerals/Trace Elements/Healthy Eating/The Food Pyramid and Reading Labels/Malnutrition/Starvation

19 Respiratory System

Why We Breathe/Organs of the Respiratory System/Nose/Nasal Cavity/Sinuses/Pharynx/Larynx/Trachea/Bronchial Tree/Lungs/Breathing/Mechanism/Inspiration/Expiration/Respiratory Air Volumes and Capacities/Alveolar Ventilation/Nonrespiratory Air Movements/Control of Breathing/Respiratory Center/Factors Affecting Breathing/Alveolar Gas Exchanges/Alveoli/Respiratory Membrane/Diffusion through the Respiratory Membrane/Gas Transport/Oxygen Transport/Carbon Monoxide/Carbon Dioxide Transport

20 Urinary System

Kidneys/Location of the Kidneys/Kidney Structure/Functions of the Kidneys/Renal Blood Vessels/Nephrons/Urine Formation/Glomerular Filtration/Filtration Pressure/Filtration Rate/Regulation of Filtration Rate/Tubular Reabsorption/Regulation of Urine/Concentration and Volume/Urea and Uric Acid/Excretion/Tubular Secretion/Urine Composition/Elimination of Urine/Ureters/Urinary Bladder/Micturition/Urethra

21 Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

Distribution of Body Fluids/Fluid Compartments/Body Fluid Composition/Movement of Fluid between Compartments/Water Balance/Water Intake/Regulation of Water Intake/Water Output /Regulation of Water Output/Electrolyte Balance/Electrolyte Intake/Regulation of Electrolyte Intake/Electrolyte Output/Regulation of Electrolyte Output/Acid-Base Balance/Sources of Hydrogen Ions/Strengths of Acids and Bases/Regulation of Hydrogen Ion Concentration

Unit Six - The Human Life Cycle

22 Reproductive System

Organs of the Male Reproductive System/Testes/Descent of the Testes/Structure of the Testes/Formation of Sperm Cells/Structure of a Sperm Cell/Male Internal Accessory Organs/Epididymis/Vas Deferens/Seminal Vesicle/Prostate Gland/Bulbourethral Glands/Semen Male External Reproductive Organs/Scrotum/Penis/Erection, Orgasm, and Ejaculation/Hormonal Control of Male Reproductive Functions/Hypothalamic and Pituitary Hormones/Male Sex Hormones/Actions of Testosterone/Regulation of Male Sex Hormones/Organs of the Female Reproductive System/Ovaries/Ovary Attachments/Ovary Descent/Ovary Structure/Primordial Follicles/Oogenesis/Follicle Maturation/Ovulation/Female Internal Accessory Organs/Uterine Tubes/Uterus/Vagina/Female External Reproductive Organs/Labia Majora/Labia Minora/Clitoris/Vestibule/Erection, Lubrication, and Orgasm/Hormonal Control of Female Reproductive Functions/Female Sex Hormones/Female Reproductive Cycle/Menopause/Pregnancy/Transport of Sex Cells/Fertilization/Early Embryonic Development/Hormonal Changes During Pregnancy/Other Changes During Pregnancy/Birth/Mammary Glands/Location of the Glands/Structure of the Glands/Development of the Breasts/Milk Production and Secretion/Birth Control/Coitus Interruptus/Rhythm Method/Mechanical Barriers/Chemical Barriers/Oral Contraceptives/Injectable Contraception/Contraceptive Implants/Intrauterine Devices/Surgical Methods/Sexually Transmitted Diseases

23 Human Growth and Development

Prenatal Period/Period of Cleavage/Embryonic Stage/Fetal Stage/Fetal Blood and Circulation/Postnatal Period/Neonatal Period/Infancy/Childhood/Adolescence/Adulthood/Senescence/Aging/Passive Aging/Active Aging/The Human Life Span

24 Genetics and Genomics

The Emerging Role of Genetics in Medicine/Modes of Inheritance/Chromosomes and Genes Come in Pairs/Dominant and Recessive Inheritance/Different Dominance Relationships/Gene Expression/Penetrance and Expressivity/Pleiotropy/Genetic Heterogeneity/Complex Traits/Matters of Sex/Sex Determination/Sex Chromosomes and their Genes/Gender Effects on Phenotype/Chromosome Disorders/Polyploidy/Aneuploidy/Prenatal Tests/Gene Therapy/Two Approaches to Gene Therapy/Tools and Targets of Gene Therapy

Reference Plates

Human Cadavers

Appendix A: Periodic Table of Elements

Appendix B: Units of Measurement and Their Equivalents

Appendix C: Laboratory Tests of Clinical Importance

Appendix D: A Closer Look at Cellular Respiration/Nucleic Acids