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15.1 Respiratory Tract
Air passes through a series of tubes before gas exchange takes place across a very extensive moist surface.
1. Why is it better to breathe through the nose than through the mouth?

2. Why do the alveoli of the lungs remain open, instead of collapsing like a deflated balloon, after exhalation?
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Gas Exchange Systems
Respiratory Overview
Respiratory Organs

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Anatomy & Physiology

Labeling Exercises
The Human Respiratory Tract (38.0K)
The Respiratory Tract - Alveoli (40.0K)
The Upper Respiratory Tract (1) (35.0K)
The Upper Respiratory Tract (2) (34.0K)
Section of Larynx (45.0K)
Glottis Function (35.0K)
15.2 Mechanism of Breathing
Respiration comprises breathing, external and internal respiration, and cellular respiration.

During inspiration, the pressure in the lungs decreases, and air comes rushing in. During expiration, increased pressure in the thoracic cavity causes air to leave the lungs.
3. Why does residual volume increase instead of decrease in individuals with certain lung diseases?

4. Explain what is meant by the phrase "humans breathe by negative pressure."
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Human Breathing
Mechanics of Ventilation
Measuring Function
Control of Respiration

Animation Quizzes
15.3 Gas Exchanges in the Body
External respiration occurs in the lungs where oxygen diffuses into the blood and carbon dioxide diffuses out of the blood.

Internal respiration occurs in the tissues where oxygen diffuses out of the blood and carbon dioxide diffuses into the blood.

The respiratory pigment hemoglobin transports oxygen from the lungs to the tissues and aids in the transport of carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs.
5. Differentiate between external respiration and internal respiration.

6. What conditions lead to the higher saturation of hemoglobin with O2 in the lungs compared to hemoglobin saturation in tissues?
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Gas Exchange
Gas Transport

Animation Quizzes
Gas Exchange

Case Study
Breathing Liquids: Reality or Science Fiction?
15.4 Respiration and Health
The respiratory tract is especially subject to disease because it is exposed to infectious agents.

Smoking tobacco contributes to three major lung disorders - chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and cancer.
7. Of the lower respiratory disorders discussed in this chapter, which disorders are linked with tobacco smoke?
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Animation Quizzes
Smoking Risks

Labeling Exercise
Bronchial and Pulmonary Disorders (39.0K)

Case Studies
Smoking Ban
Asthma: The New Worldwide Epidemic

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