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30.1 Evolution and Classification of Animals
Animals are multicellular heterotrophs exhibiting at least some mobility.

Animals are grouped according to level of organization, symmetry, body plan, pattern of embryonic development, and presence or absence of segmentation.
1. What is cephalization?

2. What ancestor gave rise to all animals?
Essential Study Partner

Art Quiz
Animal Kingdom Phylogeny

Animation Quiz
Symmetry in Nature
30.2 Introducing the Invertebrates
Sponges are multicellular, with limited mobility and no symmetry.

Cnidarians are radially symmetrical, with two tissue layers.

Planarians are bilaterally symmetrical, with a definite head region.

Roundworms have a pseudocoelom and the tube-within-a-tube body plan.
3. What level of organization is exhibited in the sponges? In the flatworms?

4. What two anatomical features are present in the roundworms that are not present in sponges, cnidarians, or flatworms?
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Radial Phyla
Bilateral/No Coelom

Art Quizzes
Cnidarian Body Plan
Body Plans for Bilaterally Symmetrical Animals
30.3 Mollusks
Mollusks have a muscular foot (variously modified), and a visceral mass enveloped by a mantle.
5. What two significant evolutionary advances are seen in the mollusks?

6. Bivalves exhibit an open circulatory system. How does an open circulatory system differ from one that is closed?
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Art Quiz
Mollusk Body Plan
30.4 Annelids
Annelids are segmented, with a well-developed, true coelom.
7. What evolutionary advancement is evident for the first time in the annelids?

8. What specialization that resulted from the tube-within-a-tube body plan is seen among the annelids?
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30.5 Arthropods
Arthropods have jointed appendages and an exoskeleton that must be periodically shed.
9. Why are arthropods, especially insects, so successful and abundant?
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Art Quizzes
Insect Structure - Internal
Decapod Crustacean - Lobster

Case Studies
Cicada Woodstock
Mosquito Coast

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