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Adolescence, 6/e
Laurence Steinberg, Temple University


academic achievement  Achievement that is measured by standardized tests of scholastic ability or knowledge
achievement  The psychosocial domain concerning behaviors and feelings in evaluative situations
achievement attributions  The beliefs one holds about the causes of one's successes and failures
activational role  The process through which changes in hormone levels, especially at puberty, stimulate changes in the adolescent's behavior, appearance, or growth
adolescence  The second decade of human development
adolescence-limitedantisocialbehavior  Antisocial or delinquent behavior that appears for the first time in adolescence and that does not persist into adulthood (contrast with life-course persistent antisocial behavior)
adolescent growth spurt  The dramatic increase in height and weight that occurs during puberty
adolescent health care  The field of study and health care devoted to understanding the health-care needs of individuals during the second decade of life
adrenarche  The maturation of the adrenal glands that takes place in preadolescence
Adult Attachment Interview  A structured interview used to assess an individual's attachment history and "internal working model" of relationships
age grading  The process of grouping individuals within social institutions on the basis of chronological age
age of majority  The designated age at which an individual is recognized as an adult member of the community
AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome)  A disease, transmitted by means of bodily fluids, that devastates the immune system
analysis of variance (ANOVA)  A statistical technique for comparing two or more groups on a variable of interest
androgens  A class of sex hormones secreted by the gonads, found in both sexes, but in higher levels in males than in females following puberty
androgyny  The combination of both highly masculine and highly feminine traits
anorexia nervosa  An eating disorder found chiefly among young women and characterized by dramatic and severe self-induced weight loss
anxious-avoidant attachment  An insecure attachment between infant and caregiver, characterized by indifference on the part of the infant toward the caregiver
anxious-resistant attachment  An insecure attachment between infant and caregiver, characterized by distress at separation and anger at reunion
asynchronicity of growth  The fact that different parts of the body grow at different rates at puberty, which sometimes results in the appearance of gawkiness or awkwardness during early adolescence
attachment  The strong affectional bond that develops between infant and caregiver
attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)  A biologically based psychological disorder characterized by impulsivity, inattentiveness, and restlessness, often in school situations
authoritarian parents  Parents who use punitive, absolute, and forceful discipline and who place a premium on obedience and conformity
authoritative parents  Parents who use warmth, firm control, and rational, issue-oriented discipline, in which emphasis is placed on the development of self-direction
automatization  The mechanism through which various cognitive processes become automatic, or second nature
autonomy  The psychosocial domain concerning the development and expression of independence
baby boom  The period following World War II, during which the number of infants born was extremely large
Bar (Bas)  Mitzvah In Judiasm, the religious ceremony marking the young person's transition to adulthood
barometric self-esteem  The aspect of self-esteem that fluctuates across situations
basal metabolism rate  The minimal amount of energy used by the body during a resting state
baseline self-esteem  The aspect of self-esteem that is relatively stable across situations and over time
behavioral autonomy  The capacity to make independent decisions and follow through with them
behavioral decision theory  An approach to understanding adolescent risk taking, in which behaviors are seen as the outcome of systematic decision-making processes
behavioral genetics  The scientific study of genetic influences on behavior
biculturalism  The successful maintenance of an identification with more than one cultural background
Big Five  In the Five-Factor Model of personality, the five critical dimensions: extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness to experience
brother-sister avoidance  The avoidance of any contact or interaction between brothers and sisters from the onset of puberty until one or both persons are married, part of the process of social redefinition at adolescence in many societies
bulimia  An eating disorder found chiefly among young women, characterized primarily by a pattern of binge eating and self-induced vomiting
care orientation  In Gilligan's theory of moral development, a moral orientation that emphasizes responding to others' needs
charter schools  Public schools that have been given the autonomy to establish their own curricula and teaching practices
child protectionists  Individuals who argued, early in the twentieth century, that adolescents need to be kept out of the labor force in order to protect them from the hazards of the workplace
chlamydia  A sexually transmitted infection caused by a bacterium
cliques  Small, tightly knit groups of between 2 and 12 friends, generally of the same sex and age
cluster suicides  Outbreaks of suicides, in which an unusually high number of suicides occur within a limited time period or small geographic area
codeswitching  Switching between two different cultural groups' norms for behavior, depending on the situation; a strategy often used by ethnic minority adolescents
cofigurative cultures  Cultures in which the socialization of young people is accomplished not only through contact with elders but also through contact between people of the same age
cognitive-developmental view  A perspective on development, based on the work of Piaget, that takes a qualitative, stage-theory approach
cohort  A group of individuals born during the same general historical era
collective efficacy  A community's social capital, derived from its members' common values and goals
comorbid  Co-occurring, as when two or more problems (e.g., drug abuse and depression) are observed in the same individual at the same point in time
competence-performance distinction  The distinction between what individuals are capable of and what they actually do; important in the study of cognitive development
comprehensive high school  An educational institution that evolved during the first half of the twentieth century, offering a varied curriculum and designed to meet the needs of a diverse population of adolescents
concrete operations  The third stage of cognitive development, according to Piaget, spanning the period roughly between age 6 and early adolescence
continuous transitions  Passages into adulthood in which adult roles and statuses are entered into gradually
conventional moral reasoning  According to Kohlberg, the second level of moral development, which develops during late childhood and early adolescence and is characterized by reasoning that is based on the rules and conventions of society
correlation coefficient  A measure of the extent to which two factors are related to one another
cortex  The part of the brain responsible for complex thought and movement
critical thinking  Thinking that is in-depth, analytical, and discriminating
cross-sectional study  A study that compares two or more groups of individuals at one point in time
crowds  Large, loosely organized groups of young people, composed of several cliques and typically organized around a shared activity
crystallization  According to Super, the stage during which individuals, typically between the ages of 14 and 18, first begin to formulate their ideas about appropriate occupations
culturalcapital  The resources provided within a family through the exposure of the adolescent to art, music, literature, and other elements of "high culture"
culture-fair tests  Standardized tests that do not, by virtue of their construction, favor one cultural or ethnic group over another
curvilinear pattern  In statistical analyses, a pattern of relation between two variables that resembles a U-shaped or an inverted U-shaped curve
deductive reasoning  A type of logical reasoning, in which one draws logically necessary conclusions from a general set of premises, or givens
de-idealization  The process of no longer idealizing one's parents
delayed phase preference  A pattern of sleep characterized by later sleep and wake times, which often emerges during puberty
demographers  Social scientists who study large-scale changes in the makeup of the population
dependent variable  In a research study, the outcome of interest
depression  A psychological disturbance, characterized by low self-esteem, decreased motivation, sadness, and difficulty finding pleasure in formerly enjoyable activities
detachment  In psychoanalytic theory, the process through which adolescents sever emotional attachments to their parents or other authority figures
diathesis-stress model  A model of psychological disorder, most commonly applied to the study of depression, in which a disorder is seen as the result of an interaction between an existing predisposition (the diathesis) and some sort of environmental stressor
discontinuous transitions  Passages into adulthood in which adult roles and statuses are entered into abruptly
disordered eating  A mild, moderate, or severe disturbance in eating habits and attitudes
divided attention  The process of paying attention to two or more stimuli at the same time
early adolescence  The period spanning roughly ages 11 through 14, corresponding approximately to the junior or middle high school years
ecology of human development  A perspective on development that emphasizes the broad context in which development occurs
educational attainment  The number of years of schooling completed by an individual
education vouchers  Monetary credits, issued by the government, that families can use to purchase schooling
effect size  In research, the actual magnitude (rather than statistical significance) of a finding
endocrine system  The system of the body that produces, circulates, and regulates hormones
epidemiology  The branch of medicine devoted to the study of how health problems are spread and distributed within communities
estrogens  A class of sex hormones secreted by the gonads, found in both sexes but in higher levels in females than in males following puberty
ethnography  A type of research in which individuals are observed in their natural settings
exo-system  In the ecological perspective on human development, the layer of the environment that does not directly contain the developing person but affects the settings in which the person lives
Experience Sampling Method (ESM)  A method for collecting data about adolescents' emotional states, in which individuals are paged and asked to report on their mood and activity
externalizing disorders  Psychosocial problems that are manifested in a turning of the symptoms outward, as in aggression and delinquency
extrinsic motivation  Motivation based on the rewards one will receive for successful performance
extrusion  The practice of separating children from their parents and requiring them to sleep in other households, as part of the process of social redefinition at adolescence in many societies
false-self behavior  Behavior that intentionally presents a false impression to others
fear of failure  Fear of the consequences of failing in achievement situations
feedback loop  A cycle through which two or more bodily functions respond to and regulate each other, such as that formed by the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland, and the gonads
Five-Factor Model  The theory that holds that there are five basic dimensions to personality (see also Big Five)
Forgotten Half  The approximately one-half of all American adolescents who do not enroll in college; they have been neglected by researchers and policymakers
formal operations  The fourth stage of cognitive development, according to Piaget, spanning the period from early adolescence through adulthood
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)  A technique used to produce images of the brain, often while the subject is performing a mental task
gangs  Adolescent peer groups who are organized, in part, around antisocial activity
gateway drugs  Drugs that, when used over time, lead to the use of other, more dangerous substances
gender identity  The aspects of one's sense of self that concern one's masculinity or femininity
gender intensification hypothesis  The idea that pressures to behave in sex-appropriate ways intensify during adolescence
generation gap  The popular phrase for the alleged conflict between young people and adults over values and attitudes
gifted students  Students who are unusually talented in an aspect of intellectual performance
glands  Organs that stimulate particular parts of the body to respond in specific ways to particular hormones
gonads  The glands that secrete sex hormones: in males, the testes; in females, the ovaries
gonorrhea  A sexually transmitted infection caused by a bacterium
health-compromising behaviors  Behaviors that place individuals at risk for health problems
health-enhancing behaviors  Behaviors that lessen individuals' risk for health problems or that increase well-being
herpes  A sexually transmitted infection caused by a virus
higher-order thinking  Thinking that involves analyzing, evaluating, and interpreting information, rather than simply memorizing it
HIV (human immunodeficiency virus)  The virus associated with AIDS
homophobia  The unwarranted fear of homosexuals or homosexuality
hormones  Highly specialized substances secreted by one or more endocrine glands
hostile attributional bias  The tendency to interpret ambiguous interactions with others as deliberately hostile
HPG axis  The neuropsychological pathway that involves the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and gonads
human ecology  A field of inquiry that focuses on the study of development and behavior in context
human papilloma virus  One of several sexually transmitted infections common among adolescents
hypothalamus  The part of the lower brain stem that controls the functioning of the pituitary gland
iatrogenic effects  Unintended adverse consequences of a treatment or an intervention
identity  The psychosocial domain concerning feelings and thoughts about the self
identity diffusion (identity confusion)  The incoherent, disjointed, incomplete sense of self characteristic of not having successfully resolved the crisis of identity
identity foreclosure  The premature establishment of a sense of identity, before sufficient role experimentation has occurred
identity versus identity diffusion  According to Erikson, the normative crisis characteristic of the fifth stage of psychosocial development, predominant during adolescence
imaginary audience  The belief, often brought on by the heightened self-consciousness of early adolescence, that everyone is watching and evaluating one's behavior
implicit personality theory  The intuitive understanding of human behavior and motivation that emerges during early adolescence
independent variable  In a research study, the variable presumed to influence the outcome of interest
indifferent parents  Parents whose behavior is characterized by low levels of both responsiveness and demandingness
individuation  The progressive sharpening of one's sense of being an autonomous, independent person
inductive reasoning  Reasoning that involves drawing an inference from evidence
indulgent parents  Parents who are characterized by high responsiveness but low demandingness
information-processing perspective  The perspective on cognition that derives from the study of artificial intelligence and attempts to explain cognitive development in terms of the growth of specific components of the thinking process (for example, memory)
initiation ceremony  The formal induction of a young person into adulthood
internalizing disorders  Psychosocial problems that are manifested in a turning of the symptoms inward, as in depression and anxiety
internal working model  The implicit model of interpersonal relationships that an individual uses through life, believed to be shaped by early attachment experiences
intimacy  The psychosocial domain concerning the formation, maintenance, and termination of close relationships
intimacy versus isolation  According to Erikson, the normative crisis characteristic of the sixth psychosocial stage of development, predominant during young adulthood
intrinsic motivation  Motivation based on the pleasure one will experience from mastering a task
inventionists  Theorists who argue that the period of adolescence is mainly a social invention
junior high school  An educational institution, designed during the early era of public secondary education, in which young adolescents are schooled separately from older adolescents
justice orientation  In Gilligan's theory of moral development, a moral orientation that emphasizes fairness and objectivity
juvenile justice system  A separate system of courts and related institutions developed to handle juvenile crime and delinquency
late adolescence  The period spanning roughly ages 18 through 21, corresponding approximately to the college years
learned helplessness  The acquired belief that one is not able to influence events through one's own efforts or actions
learning disability  A difficulty with academic tasks that cannot be traced to an emotional problem or a sensory dysfunction
leptin  The protein produced by fat cells that may play a role in the onset of puberty
life-course persistent antisocial behavior  Antisocial or delinquent behavior that appears prior to adolescence and persists into adulthood (contrast with adolescence-limited antisocial behavior)
limbic system  An area of the brain that plays an important role in emotional experience
longitudinal study  A study following the same group of individuals over time
long-term memory  The ability to recall something from a long time ago
macro-system  In the ecological perspective on human development, the outermost layer of the environment, containing forces such as history and culture
mainstreaming  The integration of adolescents who have educational handicaps into regular classrooms
marginal man  Lewin's term referring to the transitional nature of adolescence-poised on the margin of adulthood
median  In statistics, a measure of a group's average based on the point above and below which half the members of the group have scored
mediating variable  In a research study, a factor presumed to form an intervening link between two variables that are causally connected
menarche  The time of first menstruation, one of the important changes to occur among females during puberty
meso-system  In the ecological perspective on human development, the layer of the environment formed by the intersection of two or more immediate settings, as in the home-school linkage
meta-analysis  A systematic approach to the analysis of a large scientific literature, in which results from different independent studies are pooled
metacognition  The process of thinking about thinking itself
micro-systems  In the ecological perspective on human development, the immediate settings in which adolescents develop, such as the family and the peer group
middle adolescence  The period spanning roughly ages 15 through 18, corresponding approximately to the high school years
middle school  An educational institution housing seventh- and eighth-grade students along with adolescents who are one or two years younger
midlife crisis  The psychological crisis over identity believed to occur between the ages of 35 and 45, the age range of most adolescents' parents
Monitoring the Future  An annual survey of U.S. teenagers, which provides much information on drug use
mutual role taking  In Selman's theory, the stage of social perspective taking during which the young adolescent can be an objective third party and can see how the thoughts and actions of one person can influence those of another
myelination  The process through which brain circuits are insulated with myelin, which improves the efficiency of information processing
National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP)  A periodic standardized assessment of achievement sponsored by the U.S. government
need for achievement  The need that influences the extent to which an individual strives for success in evaluative situations
need for integration into adult society  In Sullivan's theory, the interpersonal need that is dominant during late adolescence
need for intimacy  According to Sullivan, the chief interpersonal need of preadolescence
need for sexual contact, need for intimacy with a peer of the opposite sex  According to Sullivan, the chief interpersonal needs of early adolescence
negative affectivity  The presumed underlying cause of internalizing disorders; characterized by high levels of subjective distress
negative identity  An identity that is obviously undesirable in the eyes of significant others and the broader community
nonshared environmental influences  The nongenetic influences in individuals' lives that make them different from people they live with
occupational attainment  A measure of achievement based on the status or prestige of the job an individual holds
organizational role  The process through which early exposure to hormones, especially prenatally, organizes the brain or other organs in anticipation of later changes in behavior or patterns of growth
oxytocin  A hormone believed to influence the formation of close relationships
parental demandingness  According to Baumrind, one of the two important dimensions of parenting; demandingness is the degree to which the parent expects and demands mature, responsible behavior from the child
parental responsiveness  According to Baumrind, one of the two important dimensions of parenting; responsiveness is the degree to which the parent responds to the child's needs in an accepting, supportive manner
participant observation  The research technique in which the researcher "infiltrates" a group of individuals in order to study their behavior and relationships
particularistic norms  Guidelines for behavior that vary from one individual to another; more commonly found in less industrialized societies
peak height velocity  The point at which the adolescent is growing most rapidly
peer groups  Groups of individuals of approximately the same age
peer pressure  The perceived influences of one's agemates or friends to go along with their behavior
permissive societies  Societies in which sexual activity during childhood and adolescence is not greatly restrained
personal fable  An adolescent's belief that he or she is unique and therefore not subject to the rules that govern other people's behavior
pheromones  A class of chemicals, secreted by animals, that stimulate certain behaviors in other members of the species
Piagetian perspective  (See cognitive-developmental)
pituitary gland  One of the chief glands responsible for regulating levels of hormones in the body
positron emission tomography (PET)  A technique used to produce images of the brain, often while the subject is performing a mental task; it is more invasive than fMRI
postconventional moral reasoning  In Kohlberg's theory, the stage of moral development during which society's rules and conventions are seen as relative and subjective, rather than as authoritative; also called principled moral reasoning
postfigurative cultures  Cultures in which the socialization of young people is accomplished almost exclusively through contact between children and their elders
preconventional moral reasoning  According to Kohlberg, the first level of moral development, which is typical of children and is characterized by reasoning that is based on the rewards and punishments associated with various courses of action
prefigurative cultures  Cultures in which young people socialize their elders, rather than vice versa
prefrontal cortex  The part of the brain responsible for many higher-order cognitive skills, such as decision making and planning
premature affluence  Having more income than one can manage maturely, especially during adolescence
preoperational period  The second stage of cognitive development, according to Piaget, spanning roughly ages 2 through 5
primary control strategies  Coping strategies in which one attempts to change the stressor
primary prevention  The approach to health promotion that emphasizes teaching all adolescents certain behaviors, values, and information
problem behavior syndrome  A pattern of co-variation among various types of externalizing disorders believed to result from an underlying trait of unconventionality
property crimes  Crimes that involve property, such as burglary, theft, or vandalism
propositional logic  The abstract system of logic that forms the basis for formal operational thinking
prosocial moral reasoning  Thinking about prosocial actions, such as cooperation or helping
protective factors  Factors that lessen individual vulnerability to harm
psychosocial  Referring to aspects of development that are both psychological and social, such as developing a sense of identity or sexuality
psychosocial moratorium  A period of time during which individuals are free from excessive obligations and responsibilities and can therefore experiment with different roles and personalities
puberty  The biological changes of adolescence
Q-Sort  The research procedure in which raters make their evaluations by determining how characteristic each of several descriptors is of the person or thing being evaluated
quinceañera  The elaborate "coming-out" celebration for adolescent girls that is practiced in many Latino communities
racial socialization  The process through which individuals acquire knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about their race
reference groups  Groups against which an individual compares himself or herself
relational aggression  Acts intended to harm another through the manipulation of his or her relationships with others, as in malicious gossip
resilience  The ability of the individual to continue to function competently in the face of adversity or stress
restrictive societies  Societies in which adolescents are pressured to refrain from sexual activity until they have married or undergone a formal rite of passage into adulthood
risk factor  A factor that increases vulnerability to harm
risk-taking behavior  Behavior that is pursued simply because it is risky; risk taking is thought to be linked to adolescent problem behavior
rite of passage  A ceremony or ritual marking an individual's transition from one social status to another, especially marking the young person's transition into adulthood
scaffolding  Structuring a learning situation so that it is just within the reach of the student
scarification  The intentional creation of scars on a part or parts of the body, often done as part of an initiation ceremony
school-based health centers  A relatively new approach to the delivery of health-care services to adolescents, which places health-care providers in offices located in or adjacent to schools
school climate  The overall atmosphere that pervades a school or classroom
school performance  A measure of achievement based on an individual's grades in school
school-to-work transition  The link between educational institutions and the workplace
secondary control strategies  Coping strategies that involve attempts by the individual to adapt to the stressor
secondary education  The system of middle schools, junior high schools, and high schools
secondary prevention  The approach to health promotion that is specifically aimed at adolescents who are believed to be at high risk for a particular disease or disturbance
secondary sex characteristics  The manifestations of sexual maturation at puberty, including the development of breasts, the growth of facial and body hair, and changes in the voice
secular trend  The tendency, over the past two centuries, for individuals to be larger in stature and to reach puberty earlier, primarily because of improvements in health and nutrition
secure attachment  A healthy attachment between infant and caregiver, characterized by trust
selective attention  The process through which individuals focus on one stimulus while tuning out another
self-conceptions  The collection of traits and attributes that individuals use to describe or characterize themselves
self-consciousness  The degree to which an individual is preoccupied with his or her self-image
Self-Directed Search  The personality inventory developed by Holland and used to help individuals better understand their vocational interests
self-efficacy  The sense or belief that one's actions have an effect on the environment
self-esteem  The degree to which individuals feel positively or negatively about themselves
self-fulfilling prophecy  The idea that individuals' behavior is influenced by what others expect of them
self-image stability  The degree to which an individual feels that his or her self-image changes from day to day
semirestrictive societies  Societies in which pressures against adolescent sexual activity exist but are not vigilantly enforced
sensation seeking  Seeking the enjoyment of novel and intense experiences
sense of identity  The extent to which individuals feel secure about who they are and who they are becoming
sensorimotor period  The first stage of cognitive development, according to Piaget, spanning the period roughly between birth and age 2
serial monogamy  Having a series of sexual relationships over time in which one is monogamous within each relationship
service learning  Structured educational experiences that involve volunteering in the community
set point  A physiological level or setting (of a specific hormone, for example) that the body attempts to maintain through a self-regulating system
sex cleavage  The separation of girls and boys into different cliques, common during late childhood and early adolescence
sex-role behavior  Behavior that is consistent with prevailing expectations for how individuals of a given sex are to behave
sexuality  The psychosocial domain concerning the development and expression of sexual feelings
sexually transmitted infections (STIs)  Infections-including gonorrhea, herpes, chlamydia, and AIDS-that are passed on through sexual contact
sexual-minority youth  Gay, lesbian, and bisexual youth
sexual orientation  An individual's orientation toward same- or opposite-sex sexual partners
sexual socialization  The process through which adolescents are exposed to and educated about sexuality
shared environmental influences  Nongenetic influences that make individuals living in the same family similar to each other
significant others  The people most important in an individual's life
social capital  The interpersonal resources available to an adolescent or a family
social class  The social position of an individual or a family in society as determined by wealth, power, reputation, or achievement
social cognition  The aspect of cognition that concerns thinking about other people, about interpersonal relationships, and about social institutions
social control theory  The theory of delinquency that links deviance with the absence of bonds to society's main institutions
social perspective taking  The ability to view events from the perspective of others
social redefinition  The process through which an individual's position or status is redefined by society
social support  The extent to which one receives emotional or instrumental assistance from one's social network
sociosexual behaviors  The aspects of sexual behavior that are merged with social relationships
specification  According to Super, the stage during which individuals, typically between the ages of 18 and 21, first begin to consider narrowly defined occupational pursuits
statistical interaction  In research, when the observed effect of an independent variable (e.g., intelligence) on an outcome (e.g., grades) varies as a function of an additional independent variable (e.g., age)
status offense  A violation of the law that pertains to minors but not to adults
stressful life events  Normative and nonnormative events presumed to increase individuals' susceptibility to psychological distress
student engagement  The extent to which students are psychologically committed to learning and mastering material in school
substance abuse  The misuse of alcohol or other drugs
synaptic pruning  The process through which certain unnecessary brain circuits are eliminated, improving the efficiency of information processing
Tanner stages  A widely used system to describe the five stages of pubertal development
teenager  A term popularized about 50 years ago to refer to young people; it connoted a more frivolous and lighthearted image than the term adolescent
temperament  The individual's predisposed style of interacting with the environment, thought to be largely biologically determined and stable over time
testosterone  One of the sex hormones secreted by the gonads, found in both sexes but in higher levels in males than in females
tracking  The grouping of students, according to ability, into levels of classes within the same school grade
underachievers  Individuals whose actual school performance is lower than what would be expected on the basis of objective measures of their aptitude or intelligence
universalistic norms  Guidelines for behavior that apply to all members of a community; more common in industrialized societies
value autonomy  The establishment of an independent set of values and beliefs
violent crimes  Crimes that involve bodily harm, such as assault, homicide, or rape
working memory  The aspect of memory in which information is held for short periods of time while a problem is being solved
youth  Today, a term used to refer to individuals between the ages of 18 and 22; it once referred to individuals between the ages of 12 and 24
youth apprenticeship  A structured, work-based learning experience that places an adolescent under the supervision of a skilled adult
youth culture  The popular culture thought to appeal to and shape the attitudes and behaviors of adolescents and youth
zone of proximal development  In Vygotsky's theory, the level of challenge that is still within the individual's reach but that forces an individual to develop more advanced skills