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Teaching Children Science Book Cover
Teaching Children Science: A Project-Based Approach, 2/e
Joe Krajcik, University of Michigan - Ann Arbor
Charlene Czerniak, University of Toledo
Carl Berger, University of Michigan - Ann Arbor

How is Student Understanding Assessed?


analytic rubrics  A scoring guide that measures artifacts, performances, or portfolios in a quantitative manner by assigning (or taking away) points for specific traits, dimensions, or criteria that are present (or missing).
anecdotal records  Written notes that describe student behaviors made at or near the time that the behaviors occurred.
artifacts  Products that illustrate what one has learned.
assessment  Any method used to judge or evaluate an outcome or help make a decision.
attestations  Testimonials about a student's work prepared by someone other than the student, such as the teacher, a parent, or a peer.
checklists  A list of items for consideration.
clinical interviews  Classroom interviews with students.
concept mapping  The process of making visual representations of the relationships among concepts.
content knowledge  The central concepts, principles, and theories in an area of study.
criterion-referenced tests  Tests that grade all students according to a single set of preestablished standards.
discussions  Talk between or among members of the class and teacher.
drawing  A picture of something made with pencil, pen, markers, etc.
essay  A short written assignment where students explain or interpret something.
formal interviews  Structured interviews.
grading  An interpretation or judgment made from data collected and recorded, thus an extension to evaluation.
holistic rubrics  Rubrics that measure the overall quality of an artifact, performance, or portfolio.
informal interviews  Less formal interviews that resemble teacher-student discussions.
journals  Recordings of personal events, experiences, and reflections.
matching  Test items that require students to correspond premises made in one column with responses in another column.
metacognitive knowledge  Having knowledge about cognition in general, as well as awareness and knowledge about her own cognition.
multimedia documents  Documents that combine writing, illustrations, photographs, videos, audiotapes, computer applications, and other media.
multiple choice  Test items that include a stem and various options.
music  Sound from voices or musical instruments.
observation  Watching someone or something carefully.
open-ended questions  Questions structured so that students can fill in their own answer.
peer assessment  Assessment of student progress made by other students.
performance-based assessment  Methods of directly examining students' knowledge, skills, and dispositions.
portfolio assessment  A process of collecting representative samples of students' work over time for purposes of documenting and assessing their learning.
portfolios  Collections of student artifacts; can be thought of as both objects and methods of assessment. As objects, they are a place for holding materials such as papers, photographs, or drawings that are representative of students' work and progress. As methods of assessment, portfolios provide ways for teachers to continuously collect and assess student work.
probing  To thoroughly examine.
product  A book, a physical model of some kind, or a working apparatus that a student makes to demonstrate what she has learned.
productions  Documents (such items as goal statements, personal reflections, captions, and descriptions of what the items in the portfolio represent that help explain the contents of a portfolio.
redirecting  To take a question or a response to a question and ask a second person to respond to the question or response.
reflective  To think about the design of one's practice-such as curriculum and instruction, and ways to revise and adapt lessons.
reliability  How consistently a test measures a student's performance.
reproductions  Documents (such as photographs of projects, videos of projects, or audiotapes of presentations) attesting to the learning process-not the actual items produced.
scoring rubric  A brief, written description of different levels of quality for student performance that allow one to rank or rate a level of performance.
selection  Techniques requiring students to select a response from choices provided on the test.
self-assessment  To judge one's own progress.
self-monitoring  Checking on one's self.
short answer  Test items that present a problem to a student that requires them to answer with (supply) a short response.
supply  Techniques requiring a student to construct a response to a question or problem.
test anxiety  Nervousness or fear of taking tests.
true and false  Test items that require a student to classify an item as true or false, correct or incorrect, or yes or no.
validity  Fair and accurate generalizations.
video  Something that has been recorded on videotape, CD, DVD, cassette, or other broadcasting medium.
wait-time  Three to five seconds a teacher waits after asking a question before calling on a student.
writing samples  Collection of a student's written work (poems, essays, stories, etc.).