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associative models of memory  Models of memory as consisting of mental representations of clusters of interconnected information
autobiographical memories  Our recollections of circumstances and episodes from our own lives
chunk  A meaningful grouping of stimuli that can be stored as a unit in short-term memory
constructive processes  Processes in which memories are influenced by the meaning we give to eventsconstructive_processes (136.0K)
decay  The loss of information in memory through its nonuse
declarative memory  Memory for factual information: names, faces, dates, and the like
echoic memory  Memory of auditory information coming from the earsechoic_memory (106.0K)
episodic memory  Memory for the biographical details of our individual livesepisodic_memory (114.0K)
explicit memory  Intentional or conscious recollection of information
flashbulb memories  Memories of a specific, important, or surprising event that are so vivid, they are like a snapshot of the event
iconic memory  Memory of information from our visual systemiconic_memory (89.0K)
implicit memory  Memories people are not consciously aware of, but that can affect their subsequent performance and behavior
interference  The phenomenon by which information in memory displaces or blocks out other information, preventing its recall
levels-of-processing theory  The theory of memory that emphasizes the degree to which new material is mentally analyzed
long-term memory  Memory that stores information on a relatively permanent basis, although it might be difficult to retrieve
memory  The process by which we encode, store, and retrieve information
memory trace  A physical change in the brain that occurs when new material is learned
priming  A phenomenon in which exposure to a word or concept (called a prime) later makes it easier to recall related information, even when one has no conscious memory of the word or concept
procedural memory  Memory for skills and habits, such as riding a bike or hitting a baseball, sometimes referred to as "nondeclarative memory"
rehearsal  The repetition of information that has entered short-term memory
schemas  Sets of cognitions about people and social experiences
semantic memory  Memory for general knowledge and facts about the world, as well as memory for the rules of logic that are used to deduce other factssemantic_memory (180.0K)
sensory memory  The initial, momentary storage of information, lasting only an instant
short-term memory  Memory that holds information for 15 to 25 seconds
tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon  The inability to recall information that one realizes one knows-a result of the difficulty of retrieving information from long-term memory
working memory  An active "workspace" in which information is retrieved and manipulated, and in which information is held through rehearsal

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