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Multiple Choice Quiz
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The rugged character of mountain landscapes around the world can be the direct result of any combination of the following factors except
B)chemical precipitation.
C)volcanic activity.
D)glacier erosion.

Which is not true of geologic faults?
A)They are surfaces along which the motion of rocks has taken place.
B)They tend to form fairly straight lines through sedimentary layers and other geologic structures.
C)Finely powdered crushed rock may be found along a fault.
D)Faults and the affects of faults are almost never observed in the field since they generally occur only deep in the earth's crust.

Folding in rocks
A)tends to occur in a series of sudden displacements.
B)folding is never expressed at the surface of the earth since it occurs deep in the crust.
C)may indirectly allow parallel ridges and valleys to develop as tilted beds are exposed.
D)can only occur in coastal regions with sufficient wave action.

Which of the following lists the successive stages of mountain building in their most likely order?
A)Crumpling of igneous rocks, folding of sedimentary rocks underneath, and collapse of a volcanic cone.
B)Deposition of thick sequences of sedimentary strata; tectonic compression causing crumpling, folding, and uplift of the rocks; stream erosion.
C)Stream erosion of sedimentary rocks followed by slow sinking and down warping.
D)Landslides followed by continental glaciation and ultimately retreat of the glaciers.

About 200 million years ago the landmass of Pangaea began to break apart into
A)South America and Africa.
B)the Tethys Sea and Gondwana.
C)Gondwana and Laurasia.
D)Australia and Antarctica.

Portions of what was once the Tethys Sea survive today as
A)the Pacific Ocean and the Indian Sea.
B)the East China Sea.
C)along the coast of South America.
D)the Mediterranean, Caspian, and Black Seas.

A region about 100 km thick under the lithosphere composed of "weak" rock is the
B)outer core.

The youngest parts of the ocean floors are
A)still hundreds of millions of years old.
B)much older than most continental rocks.
C)found along oceanic ridges.
D)easily dated by the human remains they contain.

The first real proof of ocean-floor spreading
A)was found in the trenches that rim the Pacific Ocean.
B)was found in the observation of magnetization patterns on either side of ocean ridges.
C)was discovered by Alfred Wegener just before his death in 1930.
D)was the direct measurement of continental displacement using extremely accurate satellite surveys.

Which of the following plates does not contain a large continental land mass?
A)Pacific Plate
B)African Plate
C)Antarctic Plate
D)South American Plate

A transform fault
A)is a type of plate boundary where the edges of two plates slide past each other.
B)delineates an area along which earthquakes are common.
C)is a large-scale version of a strike-slip fault.
D)all of the above are true.

Concerning continental plate collisions,
A)neither plate is forced beneath the other initially, although one will eventually subduct.
B)the classic example is the Andes, which have result from such collisions.
C)the compression and buckling of the plates will form a mountain range.
D)most such collisions occur in deep ocean trenches.

"I see no vestige of a beginning, no prospect of an end." This statement
A)was used by George Cuvier to support his notion that earth history was a series of catastrophes.
B)was used by James Hutton and essentially adopted and reformulated by Charles Lyell.
C)was refuted in the 1960s with the discovery of continental drift.
D)is a quote from the Bible in support of the origin of the earth in 4004 B.C.

In a sequence of horizontal sedimentary rocks
A)the oldest rocks generally occur at the top of the sequence.
B)the oldest rocks generally occur at the bottom of the sequence.
C)there is no correlation between the age of the rocks and their position in the sequence.
D)without an igneous layer it is impossible to figure out which rocks might be older or younger.

Radiocarbon (carbon 14) dating
A)is applicable only to inorganic materials.
B)has been used to establish that the oldest rocks on earth are over 10 billion years old.
C)has a half-life of about 5700 years and therefore is only useful for geologically recent material such as archaeological remains.
D)has been challenged in recent years when it was found that scientists had prematurely adopted the notion of uniformitarianism.

Which of the following is not necessary for an unconformity to form?
A)deposition of the oldest strata
B)formation of fossils
C)erosion of elevated strata
D)deposition on the eroded surface

The oldest known rocks found on earth have been dated to
A)six thousand years ago.
B)about 2 million years ago.
C)about 4 billion years ago.
D)about 10 billion years ago.

The division of geologic time into eras and periods is based upon all of the following except
A)correlations between large-scale changes in the earth's crust and the biological record.
B)incidents of divine intervention.
C)biological extinction and evolution.
D)major climatic and landscape changes.

Which of the following is in the correct order from oldest to youngest?
A)Precambrian, Mesozoic, Paleozoic, Cenozoic
B)Paleozoic, Mesozoic, Precambrian, Cenozoic
C)Precambrian, Paleozoic, Cenozoic, Mesozoic,
D)Precambrian, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, Cenozoic

A)do not support the idea of evolution.
B)generally are of little use when it comes to dating and correlating rock strata.
C)can be used to help reconstruct ancient environments.
D)are so rare that they are primarily the domain of extremely wealthy collectors.

During Precambrian time
A)life did not exist.
B)at least two glacial periods took place.
C)monkeys first evolved.
D)igneous rocks were limited to deep intrusive rocks.

The oldest abundant fossils
A)are of early Paleozoic marine invertebrates.
B)are found in the coal beds of Pennsylvania.
C)are of dinosaurs which could be easily preserved due to their large size.
D)are found along ancient river beds.

Concerning petroleum, it is currently believed that
A)most was formed during the Paleozoic.
B)it comes from the decay, burial, and chemical modification of organic debris from algae and plankton.
C)it has no relationship chemically or in terms of its formation to natural gas.
D)most of it originated from weathered granitic rocks.

The extinction of the dinosaurs
A)may have been the result of an asteroid impact.
B)occurred during the middle of the Cenozoic Era.
C)correlates with the beginning of the breakup of Pangaea.
D)occurred before the evolution of the earliest known mammals.

The human species
A)dates back to the early Cenozoic.
B)have been increasing at an ever faster rate over the last several centuries.
C)went extinct during the last Ice Age, only to evolve again from a few chimpanzees that were able to survive in southern Africa.
D)first evolved in Australia and spread out from there.

The Physical Universe, 11eOnline Learning Center

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