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When you have completed this chapter you should be able to:

1. State what a wave is and give examples of different kinds of waves.
2. Distinguish between transverse and longitudinal waves.
3. Use the formula v = λf to relate the frequency and wavelength of a wave to its speed.
4. Discuss the nature of sound.
5. State what the Doppler effect is and explain its origin.
6. Describe the various ways in which musical instruments produce sound.
7. Discuss the nature of electromagnetic waves and give examples of different types of such waves.
8. Distinguish between amplitude and frequency modulation.
9. Explain how radar works.
10. Describe what is meant by a light ray.
11. Explain how a mirror produces an image.
12. Explain what is meant by the refraction and the reflection of waves.
13. Explain how refraction makes a body of water seem shallower than it actually is.
14. Explain what is meant by internal reflection.
15. Define lens and distinguish between converging and diverging lenses.
16. Describe the differences between farsightedness, near sightedness, and astigmatism.
17. Account for the dispersion of white light into a spectrum when it is refracted.
18. Discuss the origin of rainbows.
19. Explain why the sky is blue.
20. Distinguish between constructive and destructive interference.
21. Explain why thin films of soap or oil are brightly colored.
22. Describe the diffraction of waves at the edge of an obstacle.
23. Describe the effect of diffraction on the sharpness of the images produced by optical instruments.

The Physical Universe, 11eOnline Learning Center

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