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Chapter Objectives
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After reading this chapter you should be able to:
  • describe how lenses bend light rays to produce enlarged images of small objects
  • describe the various parts of the light microscope and how each part contributes to the functioning of the microscope
  • describe the preparation and simple staining of specimens for observation with the light microscope
  • describe the Gram-staining procedure and how it is used to categorize bacteria
  • describe the basis for the various staining procedures used to visualize specific structures associated with microorganisms
  • compare the operation of the transmission and scanning electron microscopes with each other and with light microscopes
  • describe confocal microscopy and scanning probe microscopy
  • compare and contrast light microscopes, electron microscopes, confocal microscopes, and scanning probe microscopes in terms of their resolution, the types of specimens that can be examined, and the images produced

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