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Chapter Objectives
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After reading this chapter you should be able to:
  • list the gases of major importance to aquatic microbial communities
  • discuss the nutrient levels observed in various types of bodies of water
  • describe the vertical stratification of microbial populations, nutrients, and oxygen that are observed in a Winogradsky column
  • discuss the cycling of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur in aquatic environments
  • describe the microbial loop and its role in the cycling of nutrients in aquatic environments
  • give examples of the types of adaptations observed in aquatic microorganisms
  • compare and contrast marine and freshwater environments
  • compare and contrast lake environments and stream and river environments
  • discuss frozen aquatic environments
  • list the major pathogens transmitted by water
  • describe the steps used to purify drinking water
  • describe the ideal characteristics of indicator organisms and how they are used to measure the microbiological quality of water
  • describe the methods commonly used to measure the level of organic material in wastewater
  • discuss wastewater treatment systems
  • compare and contrast wastewater treatment systems to the natural purification processes observed in waters
  • discuss the ways humans impact groundwater and surface water
  • describe home wastewater treatment systems

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