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Chapter Objectives
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After reading this chapter you should be able to:
  • discuss the first and second laws of thermodynamics and show how they apply to biological systems
  • discuss enthalpy, entropy, and free energy and their application to biological reactions
  • discuss the use of ATP as the energy currency of the cell and show how it is used to couple energy-yielding exergonic reactions with energy-requiring endergonic reactions
  • discuss reduction potential and its relationship to exergonic and endergonic processes
  • describe the role of enzymes in the catalysis of biological reactions, and discuss the ways in which enzymes are influenced by their environment
  • discuss the need for metabolic regulation
  • describe metabolic channeling
  • describe how enzyme activity can be controlled by allosteric regulation and covalent modification
  • describe how feedback inhibition can be used to control the activity of a metabolic pathway

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