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Learning Objectives
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  1. Define cognition. Describe Piaget and Vygotsky's models of cognitive development.
  2. Explain the distinction Piaget draws between cognitive structures and processes. Define "schemata" and "operations."
  3. Describe how schemata are modified throughout the lifetime, and the principles used to modify them (assimilation and accommodation).
  4. Describe the sensorimotor period and the concept of object permanence.
  5. Describe the preoperational period and the capabilities and limitations during the preconceptual and intuitive subperiods.
  6. Discuss the general limitations on preoperational thought.
  7. Discuss the child's capabilities and limitations during the concrete operational period.
  8. Describe the abilities that emerge during the formal operational period.
  9. Using research as evidence, cite the criticisms of Piaget's theory. List the contributions of Piaget's theory to developmental psychology.
  10. Discuss Vygotsky's concepts of elementary and higher mental functions.
  11. Discuss how the zone of proximal development relates to advances in development.
  12. Identify the role of culture in mathematics and language.

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