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Citing Sources

While documentation styles differ in what information they require you to report, when you are taking notes from sources, you should always keep track of authors, titles, page numbers, and publication information.

Some documentation styles include in-text citations, and most require some list of references or works cited in the paper.

In-Text Citations

The page number(s) where the material quoted, summarized, or paraphrased is found in the source should be placed immediately following the cited material and preceding any punctuation marks that divide or end the sentence if the documentation style uses parenthetical citation, as MLA, APA, and CSE name-year style documentation do. If you are using Chicago or CSE number style, this information will appear in a note. You should use a signal phrase to introduce material you are quoting, paraphrasing, or summarizing from a source. This phrase is generally placed immediately before the material you are citing. It is a good practice to include the author's name in the signal phrase (for example, William Julius Wilson comments). If the author's name is not included in the signal phrase, it must be placed in the parenthetical citation after the material from the source.


Works Cited / List of References / Bibliography Page

Each source mentioned in the paper must have its own entry on the works cited page, on the list of references, in the bibliography, or (in Chicago style papers without a separate bibliography) in the note where the source is mentioned in the paper. Consult a reference work about the style you are using to determine what information to include on this list or in this note. When creating a works cited page, a list of references, or a bibliography, alphabetize the list by author's last name (or by the first word of the title, if the author is not given), unless you are using CSE number style, in which case the list of references is arranged in the order you cite them in your paper.

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