Site MapHelpFeedbackeLearning
(See related pages)

ConceptsQuestionsMedia Resources
  • Echinoderms and chordates are both deuterostomes.
  • Echinoderms have radial symmetry and a unique water vascular system for locomotion
  1. Which two phyla contain deuterostomes?
  2. What kind of symmetry is found in adult echinoderms?
  3. Describe the endoskeleton of an echinoderm.
  4. What system makes the tube feet of sea stars into suckers?
Essential Study Partner Summaries of major points:
  1. Echinoderms have a spiny skin
  2. Sea stars
Art Review
31.2 Chordates
  • Lancelets are invertebrate chordates with the four chordate characteristics as adults: notochord, a dorsal tubular nerve cord, and pharyngeal pouches.
  1. What are the four basic characteristics that make an animal a chordate?
  2. What are the invertebrate chordates and how do they feed?
Essential Study Partner Summaries of major points:
  1. The chordates
  2. Invertebrate chordates
Art Review Art Quizzes
31.3 Vertebrates
  • In vertebrates, the notochord is replaced by the vertebral column. Most vertebrates also have a head region, endoskeleton, and paired appendages.
  • There are three groups of fishes: jawless (e.g., hagfishes and lampreys), cartilaginous (sharks and rays), and bony fishes (ray-finned and lobe-finned). Most modern-day fishes are ray-finned (e.g., trout, perch, etc.)
  • Amphibians (e.g., frogs and salamanders), who were more numerous during the Carboniferous period, evolved from lobe-finned fishes.
  • Modern-day reptiles (e.g., turtles, lizards, snakes) are the remnants of an ancient group that evolved from amphibians.
  • The shelled egg of reptiles, which contains extraembryonic membranes, is an adaptation for reproduction on land.
  • There is a close evolutionary relationship between birds and reptiles. However, birds maintain a constant body temperature.
  • Birds have feathers and skeletal adaptations that enable them to fly.
  • Mammals, which evolved from reptiles, were present when the dinosaurs existed. They did not diversify until the dinosaurs became extinct.
  • Mammals are vertebrates with hair and mammary glands. The former helps them maintain a constant body temperature.
  • Mammals are classified according to methods of reproduction: monotremes lay eggs, marsupials have a pouch into which a newborn crawls and develops further; and placental mammals retain the offspring in a uterus until birth.
  1. What is the vertebrate skeleton made of?
  2. What kind of digestive and circulatory systems are found in vertebrates?
  3. What senses are most used by cartilaginous fish to find prey?
  4. What is the function of a swim bladder?
  5. What are the differences between the three major groups of amphibians?
  6. Animals which regulate their internal temperature by moving about in the environment are called what?
  7. What major adaptation allowed reptiles to diversify on land?
  8. What is the protein found in reptile scales, mammal hair, and bird feathers that make them water proof?
  9. What is the advantage of a four-chambered heart?
  10. The organ which allows nutrient and gas exchange to occur between a female and the embryos she carries in one group of mammals is called the ______________.
Essential Study Partner Summaries of major points:
  1. Subphylum Vertebrata
  2. Fishes
  3. Jawless fishes
  4. Fishes with jaws
  5. Cartilaginous fishes
  6. Bony fishes
  7. Amphibians
  8. Reptiles
  9. Birds
  10. Mammals
Art Review Art Quizzes Animation Quizzes

BiologyOnline Learning Center with Powerweb

Home > Chapter 31 > eLearning