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32.1 Evolution of primates
  • Primate characteristics include an enlarged brain, opposable thumb, binocular vision, and an emphasis on learned behavior.
  1. What are the characteristics of primates?
  2. What is a major advantage of binocular vision?
  3. What is the difference between 'Old World' and 'New World' monkeys?
Essential Study Partner Summaries of major points:
  1. Primate characteristics
  2. Evolution of major groups
Art Review Art Quizzes
32.2 Evolution of hominids
  • Humans (Homo sapiens) are in the order primates and the family Hominidae (extinct and modern humans).
  • About 5 MYA, australopithecines (the first hominids) evolved in Africa. The australopithecines had a relatively small brain, but they could walk upright.
  1. What are the characteristics distinguishing hominids from other primates?
  2. What is the hypothesized early environment of hominids and how did bipedalism help?
  3. ___________________ occurs when different structures evolve at different times and rates.
  4. What characteristics must be present for a fossil to be assigned to the genus Homo?
  5. What is culture?
Essential Study Partner Summaries of major points:
  1. Mosaic evolution of early hominids
  2. South Africa
  3. Eastern Africa
  4. Evolutionary relationships between Australopithecines
Art Quizzes
32.3 Evolution of humans
  • About 2 MYA, early Homo types evolved which had a larger brain than the australopithecines and were able to make primitive stone tools.
  • Forms of Homo erectus are found in both Africa and Asia. H. erectus had a knowledge of fire and made more advanced tools.
  • The out-of-Africa hypothesis says that modern humans evolved in Africa and after migrating to Europe and Asia (about 100,000 years BP2), they replaced the archaic Homo species, including the Neanderthals.
  • Cro-Magnon is the name given to modern humans who made sophisticated tools and definitely had culture.
  • Today humans have various ethnic backgrounds. Even so, genetic evidence suggests humans share a fairly recent common ancestor and significant differences are due to adaptations to local environmental conditions.
  1. Explain the multiregional continuity hypothesis.
  2. What is the hypothesis that proposes evolution of Homo sapiens from H. erectus in Africa and then a migration of humans to other areas where they developed different characteristics?
Summaries of major points:
  1. Early Homo
  2. Homo ergaster and Homo erectus
  3. Evolution of modern humans
  4. Neanderthal
  5. Cro-Magnons
Art Review

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