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34.1 Transport in invertebrates
  • Some invertebrates do not have a circulatory system and others have an open, as opposed to a closed, system.
  1. How do invertebrates without circulatory systems exchange materials with their environments?
  2. ______________ is the fluid circulated with an open circulatory system, while ____________ is circulated inside the vessels of a closed system.
  3. Where is hemoglobin found and what does it do?
Essential Study Partner Summaries of major points
  1. Transport mechanisms
  2. Invertebrates with a cavity
  3. With an open or closed system
Art Quizzes Explorations
34.2 Transport in Vertebrates
  • Vertebrates have a closed circulatory system: arteries take blood away from the heart to the capillaries where exchange occurs, and veins take blood to the heart.
  • Fishes have a single circulatory loop, whereas the other vertebrates have a double circulatory loop - to and from the lungs and also to and from the tissues.
  1. All vertebrate animals have a (closed or open) circulatory system.
  2. What are the three main types of blood vessels, how do they differ, and what does each do?
  3. Describe the single-loop circulatory pathway of fish.
  4. How many atria and ventricles are found in amphibian, reptile, bird, and mammal hearts?
  5. Why is the left ventricle of crocodiles, birds, and mammals larger than the right?
Essential Study Partner Summaries of major points
  1. Closed circulatory system
  2. Comparison of circulatory pathways
Labeling Exercises Art Quizzes Explorations
34.3 Transport in humans
  • The right side of the heart pumps blood to the lungs, and the left side pumps blood to the tissues.
  • Blood pressure causes blood to flow in the arteries and arterioles. Skeletal muscle contraction causes blood to flow in the venules and veins. In veins, valves prevent backflow of blood.
  1. Describe the path of blood through the parts of the human heart.
  2. What is the difference in systole and diastole?
  3. What are the functions of the sinoatrial (SA) and atrioventricular (AV) nodes of the heart?
  4. What is a portal system?
  5. What happens to blood in the liver?
Essential Study Partner Summaries of major points
  1. Heart pumps blood
  2. Path of blood through the heart
  3. Heartbeat
  4. Vascular pathways
  5. Blood pressure
Labeling Exercises Art Quizzes Animations Animation Quizzes Study Guides Lab exercises
34.4 Cardiovascular disorders
  • Although the cardiovascular system is very efficient, it is still subject to degenerative disorders.
  1. Which is most considered in the medical treatment of hypertension, systolic or diastolic pressure?
  2. What is atherosclerosis and what can be done to help prevent it?
  3. What is the difference between a stroke and a heart attack?
Essential Study Partner Summaries of major points
  1. Cardiovascular disease
  2. Hypertension
  3. Artherosclerosis
  4. Stroke and heart attack
Labeling Exercises Animation Quizzes
34.5 Blood, a transport medium
  • In humans, blood is composed of cells and a fluid containing proteins and various other molecules and ions.
  • Blood clotting is a series of reactions that produces a clot - fibrin threads in which red blood cells are trapped.
  • Exchange of substances between blood and tissue fluid across capillary walls supplies cells with nutrients and removes wastes.
  1. What are the major functions of blood?
  2. What is the major component of red blood cells?
  3. Where are red blood cells made and destroyed?
  4. What is the difference in the function of T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes?
  5. What is the function of platelets?
  6. Where do oxygen and nutrients diffuse out of and where do carbon dioxide and wastes diffuse into a capillary?
Essential Study Partner Summaries of major points
  1. Blood has two components...
  2. Formed elements
  3. Capillary exchange
Labeling Exercises Art Quizzes Study Guides

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