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4.1 Cellular Level of Organization
  • All organisms are composed of cells, which arise from preexisting cells.
  • A microscope is usually needed to see a cell because most cells are quite small.
  • Cell-volume-to-cell-surface relationships explain why cells are so very small.
  1. What two basic concepts make up the cell theory?
  2. Why are all cells small?
Essential Study Partner Summaries of major points:
  1. Cell theory
  2. Cell size
  3. Microscopy of today
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4.2 Prokaryotic Cells
  • Prokaryotic cells do not have a membrane-bounded nucleus nor other organelles of eukaryotic cells.
  • The organization of prokaryotic cells includes appendages, a cell envelope and the cytoplasm.
  1. Into what two domains are prokaryotic cells classified and on what is this separation based?
  2. What is the function of the cell wall of bacteria?
  3. Describe the DNA of bacteria and where in the cell it's found.
  4. Photosynthetic bacteria are known by what two terms?
  5. What are the differences between the cell wall and plasma membrane of Bacteria and Archaea?
Essential Study Partner Summaries of major points:
  1. Bacteria are prokaryotic cells
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4.3 Eukaryotic Cells
  • The organization of all eukaryotic cells includes a plasma membrane, the cytoplasm, the nucleus, and various organelles.
  • Organelles are membrane-bounded compartments specialized to carry out specific functions.
  • The membrane-bounded nucleus contains DNA within the chromatin, which condense to chromosomes. The nucleus communicates with the cytoplasm.
  • The endomembrane system contains several organelles that communicate with one another, sometimes resulting in the secretion of proteins.
  • Chloroplasts have a double membrane and use solar energy to produce organic molecules that serve as nutrients for a plant cell.
  • Mitochondria have a double membrane and break down organic nutrients, capturing energy for the production of ATP molecules.
  • The cytoskeleton, a complex system of filaments and tubules, gives the cell its shape and accounts for the movement of the cell and its organelles.
  1. What are the major differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?
  2. What are the kingdoms containing organisms with eukaryotic cells?
  3. What factors about mitochondria and chloroplast suggest an origin as a prokaryotic cell?
  4. What is the nucleolus and what molecules are constructed there?
  5. What is the endomembrane system and what structures does it consist of?
  6. What are the differences between the structure and function of rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum?
  7. What are the energy related organelles and what are their functions?
Essential Study Partner Summaries of major points:
  1. Eukaryotic cells
  2. Evolution of the eukaryotic cell
  3. The nucleus
  4. Ribosomes are the site of protein synthesis
  5. The endomembrane system
  6. Energy-related organelles
  7. The cytoskeleton
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