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6.1 Cells and the Flow of Energy
  • Energy cannot be created nor destroyed; energy can be changed from one form to another but there is always a loss of usable energy.
  1. What are the first and second Laws of Thermodynamics?
  2. How do the Laws of Thermodynamics apply to living organisms?
Essential Study Partner Summaries of major points:
  1. Energy
  2. Two laws of thermodynamics
  3. Entropy
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6.2 Metabolic Reactions and Energy Transformations
  • The breakdown of ATP, which releases energy, can be coupled to reactions that require an input of energy.
  • ATP goes through a cycle; energy from glucose breakdown drives ATP buildup and then ATP breakdown provides energy for cellular work.
  1. The sum of all reactions occurring in a cell is called _________________.
  2. What is the difference between endergonic and exergonic reactions and what is the role of ATP between them?
  3. What type of macromolecule is ATP?
  4. What is the makeup of ATP?
  5. List and explain the three kinds of work performed by ATP.
Essential Study Partner Summaries of major points:
  1. Metabolism
  2. Coupled reactions
  3. ATP: Energy for Cells
  4. Function of ATP
  5. Structure of ATP
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6.3 Metabolic Pathways and Enzymes
  • Cells have metabolic pathways in which every reaction has a specific enzyme.
  • Enzymes speed reactions because they have an active site where a specific reaction occurs.
  • Environmental factors like temperature and pH affect the activity of enzymes.
  • Inhibition of enzymes is a common way for cells to control enzyme activity.
  1. What is the energy of activation of a reaction and how is it affected by an enzyme?
  2. The position on an enzyme where substrates bind and react is _________________.
  3. What happens to an enzyme that is denatured?
  4. What is the difference between enzyme cofactors and coenzymes and what is their function?
Essential Study Partner Summaries of major points:
  1. Reactions in cells are orderly
  2. Energy of activation
  3. Enzyme-substrate complexes
  4. Factors affecting enzymatic speed
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6.4 Oxidation-Reduction and the Flow of Energy
  • Photosynthesis and cellular respiration are metabolic pathways that include oxidation-reduction reactions. Thereby energy becomes available to living things.
  1. ________________ is when a molecule gains electrons and __________________ is when a molecule looses electrons.
  2. The general photosynthetic reaction is carbon dioxide + _____________ + energy ® glucose + _____________.
  3. What is the relationship between the general reactions of photosynthesis and respiration?
  4. In which organelles do photosynthesis and respiration occur?
  5. The electron transport system functions in both photosynthesis and respiration to do what?
Summaries of major points:
  1. Oxidation-Reduction
  2. Photosynthesis
  3. Cellular respiration
  4. Electron transport system
  5. ATP production
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