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Urinary System and Fluid Balance

Functions of the Urinary System
1. List the major functions of urinary system.
Urinary System
2. List the structures that make up the urinary system.
3. Describe the location and anatomy of the kidneys.
4. Describe the structure of the nephron and the location of the parts of the nephron in the kidney.
5. Describe the ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra.
Urine Production
6. Identify the principal factors that influence filtration pressure and explain how they affect the rate of filtrate formation.
7. Give the function of the proximal tubule, descending and ascending limbs of Henle's loop, distal tubule, and collecting duct.
8. Explain how the movement of substances across the wall of the nephron and collecting duct influences the composition of the filtrate.
Regulation of Urine Concentration and Volume
9. Explain how antidiuretic hormone, aldosterone, and atrial natriuretic hormone influence the volume and concentration of urine.
Urine Movement
10. Describe the micturition reflex.
Body Fluid Compartments
11. List the major body fluid compartments.
Regulation of Extracellular Fluid Composition
12. Describe the mechanisms by which, Na1, K1, and Ca21 are regulated in the extracellular fluid.
Regulation of Acid = Base Balance
13. Illustrate how the mechanisms that regulate the body fluid pH function by explaining how they respond to decreasing and increasing pH in the body fluids.

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