Please answer all questions.
Transcription is initiated when RNA polymerase binds to A) a promoter B) an initiator C) a transcriptor D) a codon
The promoter sequence in eukaryotes is A) TAATAA B) TATAAA C) TTGACA D) GTTAAA
Each time a nucleotide is added as the transcription bubble passes down the DNA, the RNA-DNA complex A) elongates B) rotates C) shrinks D) disassembles
Eukaryotic mRNA transcripts are protected from modification by A) 5' caps B) 5' poly-A caps C) 3' caps D) 5'-3' poly tails
The order in which nucleotides are moved along the ribosomes binding sites is A) APE B) PEA C) EPA D) EAP
In eukaryotes, there are _______________ codons that specify amino acids. A) 21 B) 24 C) 61 D) 64 E) 60
In eukaryotes, the "start" codon also specifies the amino acid, A) phenylalanine B) valine C) aspartate D) methionine
In mitochondrial genomes, _______________ is a "stop" codon. A) UGA B) UUU C) AUA D) UAA E) AGA
Together with proteins, rRNA A) provides a site for polypeptide synthesis B) transports amino acids to the ribosome C) travels to the ribosome to direct the assembly of polypeptides D) transcribes DNA E) translates DNA
In transcription, the nucleotide sequence CAT in DNA would specify _______________ in mRNA. A) TAC B) GAU C) CAT D) GTU E) GUA
The genetic code consists of groups of three nucleotides called A) codons B) introns C) anticodons D) reading frames E) triplets
The function of tRNA is to A) provide a site for polypeptide synthesis B) transport amino acids to the ribosome C) travel to the ribosome to direct the assembly of polypeptides D) transcribe DNA E) translate DNA
In the formation of an initiation complex, a _______________ is positioned first. A) met-tRNA B) ser-tRNA C) tyr-rRNA D) mval-tRNA E) cyst-tRNA
Enzymes called amino acyl-tRNA synthetases A) synthesizes tRNA B) attaches amino acids to tRNA C) strips tRNA from its amino acid in the process of translation D) destroys excess tRNA molecules E) helps tRNA synthesize amino acids
In mRNA the "start" sequence is A) UAA B) UAG C) UGA D) AUG E) GUU
In a process called _______________, the initial tRNA is ejected from the ribosome. A) elongation B) translocation C) initiation D) transcription E) elimination
The function of mRNA is to A) provide a site for polypeptide synthesis B) transport amino acids to the ribosome C) travel to the ribosome to direct the assembly of polypeptides D) transcribe DNA E) translate DNA
The process of _______________ cuts introns from the primary transcript and the final "processed" mRNA is produced. A) RNA cleaving B) RNA translocation C) RNA elongation D) RNA splicing E) RNA releasing
In the process of translation, A) a strand of mRNA is formed with nucleotide sequences complementary to those of DNA B) nucleotide sequences of tRNA are established C) a polypeptide is formed in response to the rRNA nucleotide sequence D) rRNA is synthesized with sequences complementary to those of tRNA E) a polypeptide is formed as dictated by the nucleotide sequence in mRNA
In mRNA, the series of nucleotides CCC specifies A) serine B) proline C) alanine D) arginine E) stop
A molecule of tRNA with the anticodon AAA will transport the amino acid A) phenylalanine B) lysine C) proline D) glycine E) arginine
As polypeptides are formed at the ribosome, elongation continues until _______________ is exposed. A) a release factor B) an intron C) a nonsense codon D) an exon E) polypeptidase
In the process of transcription A) the base sequence of DNA is copied into tRNA B) a polypeptide is formed as specified by the genes in a chromosome C) rRNA is specified by exons in DNA D) a strand of mRNA is formed with base sequences complementary to those of DNA E) mRNA is formed as coded by introns
In messenger RNA, the nucleotide series UAG specifies A) arginine B) serine C) stop D) proline E) aspartate
Which enzyme is incorrectly matched to its function? A) RNA polymerase -- transcription B) aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase -- attaches an amino acid to a tRNA C) peptidyl transferase -- translation D) DNA ligase -- joins Okazaki fragments E) All of the above are paired correctly.
Identify the polypeptide that would be produced as a result of transcribing and translating the following DNA sequence.
DNA: ...3' A C C A A G T C T 5'... A) arg - phe - trp B) arg - leu - gly C) thr - lys - ser D) trp - phe - arg E) gly - leu - arg
The strand of DNA used in the previous problem undergoes a mutation, such that the second C from the 3' end is changed to a T. The mutant DNA is shown below. What would change in the polypeptide? Mutant DNA: ...3' A C T A A G T C T 5'... A) no change B) polypeptide would be 1 amino acid shorter C) polypeptide would be 1 amino acid longer D) 1 amino acid would substitute for another E) translation would terminate within this stretch
Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase directs the synthesis of tRNA molecules from a DNA template. A) True B) False
Just as one amino acid may be specified by more than one codon, one codon may specify more than one amino acid. A) True B) False
Which one of the following is not a kind of RNA? A) tRNA (transfer RNA) B) mRNA (messenger RNA) C) rRNA (ribosomal RNA) D) nRNA (nuclear RNA) E) All of the above are kinds of RNA.
The direct result of transcription is: A) a duplicate DNA molecule B) nRNA C) a protein D) mRNA E) none of the above
The direct result of translation is: A) a duplicate DNA molecule B) nRNA C) a protein D) mRNA E) all of the above
Which one of the following is not associated with transcription? A) tRNA B) mRNA C) RNA polymerase D) DNA E) a promoter
Which one of the following is not associated with translation? A) rRNA B) mRNA C) tRNA D) anticodon E) All are involved with translation.
In the process of translation, the amino acids are arranged to form specific proteins because they are attached to: A) rRNA B) tRNA C) mRNA D) promoter E) none of the above
Transcription takes place in the nucleus using the DNA in the nucleus as a template for the formation of proteins. A) True B) False
Genes are composed of segments of "extra," nonessential materials called exons. A) True B) False