Which of the following is a part of the peripheral nervous system? A) sensory pathway B) autonomic nervous system C) voluntary nervous system D) all of the above
In sensory neurons, stimuli are received by the A) axons B) dendrites C) cell body D) myelin
Graded potentials may become action potential by A) summation B) multiplication C) hypopolarization D) decreasing frequency
Action potentials A) are summable B) are amplifiable C) result from facilitated diffusion D) are all-or-nothing events
All of the following neurotransmitters are biogenic amines except A) serotonin B) dopamine C) neuropeptides D) norepinephrine
Postsynaptic membranes are most likely to be found on A) axons B) dendrites C) neuron cell bodies D) myelin sheaths E) hormones
What is primarily responsible for establishing the uneven Na+ ion concentrations inside and outside a neuron during its resting potential? A) active transport B) simple diffusion C) facilitated diffusion D) all of the above E) none of the above
During the resting potential of a neuron, which of the following is least likely to be found in large quantities inside the neuron? A) Na+ B) K+ C) negatively charged anions D) none of the above would be found in large quantities inside the neuron
During saltatory conduction, a nerve impulse jumps from one _______________ to another. A) myelin sheath B) synapse C) node of Ranvier D) dendrite E) axon
GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) is normally found at A) neuromuscular junctions B) nodes of Ranvier C) sensory receptors D) excitatory synapses E) inhibitory synapses
The firing of a neuron is also called A) depolarization B) an action potential C) both of the above D) none of the above
Nerve impulses are normally carried toward a neuron cell body by the neuron's A) synaptic cleft B) axon C) myelin sheaths D) hormones E) dendrites
The junction between a neuron and its target cell is called a A) neurotransmitter B) synapse C) node of Ranvier D) threshold E) voltage-gated channel
Neurotransmitters are released from vesicles at the A) cell body B) dendrite C) cell nucleus D) postsynaptic membrane E) presynaptic membrane
Acetylcholinesterase is A) a neurotransmitter B) an enzyme that breaks down a neurotransmitter C) a stimulant that triggers an action potential D) a hormone E) none of the above
During depolarization A) Na+ moves out of the neuron B) K+ moves into the neuron C) organic ions move out of the neuron D) all of the above E) none of the above
The myelin sheath is formed by _______________, which wrap around the axons of some neurons. A) nodes of Ranvier B) dendrites C) synapses D) Schwann cells E) cell bodies
In a polarized neuron at rest A) the inside of the neuron is more negatively charged than the outside B) outside of the neuron is more negatively charged than the inside C) either of the above can be true D) the inside and the outside of the neuron have the same electrical charge
The role of the Na+/K+ pump in the nervous system is to A) maintain proper ionic concentration gradients across the neuron membrane B) generate the nerve impulse when the neuron is stimulated C) transmit the nerve impulse across the synaptic cleft between neurons D) provide a source of Na+ and K+ by splitting NaCl and other appropriate molecules E) none of the above - it plays no role
The neurotransmitter at neuromuscular junctions is A) GABA B) serotonin C) acetylcholinesterase D) acetylcholine E) none of the above
Which of the following should have the slowest conduction velocity? A) an unmyelinated, small-diameter nerve B) an unmyelinated, large-diameter nerve C) a myelinated, small-diameter nerve D) a myelinated, large-diameter nerve E) they would all have the same conduction velocity
The midbrain of vertebrates is also called the A) medulla B) mesencephalon C) diencephalon D) hypothalamus E) cerebrum
In fish and early vertebrates, the dominant part of the brain was the A) cerebrum B) forebrain C) midbrain D) hindbrain E) optic lobes
In humans and other primates, the hemispheres of the cerebrum are connected by a nerve tract called the A) pons B) nerve net C) thalamus D) cerebral cortex E) corpus callosum
Emotions of vertebrates are controlled by the A) pyramidal tracts B) reticular system C) cerebellum D) corpus striatum E) limbic system
Which of the following is not part of the hindbrain? A) pons B) medulla oblongata C) cerebrum D) cerebellum E) all of the above are part of the hindbrain
Which of the following is not one of the four lobes of a primate's cerebral hemisphere? A) optic B) parietal C) frontal D) temporal E) occipital
The thalamus is a primary site of A) motor reflex coordination B) visceral integration C) sensory integration D) hormone production E) none of the above
Neurons that carry impulses away from the central nervous system are called A) sensory nerves B) afferent nerves C) efferent nerves D) interneurons E) extensors
When you look at an intact human brain, what you see the most is a large, highly convoluted outer surface. This is the A) cerebral cortex B) medulla C) cerebellum D) reticular system E) viscera
Which of the following is an example of an antagonistic control system? A) flexors and extensors B) sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems C) both of the above D) none of the above
What neurotransmitter is released in the ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system? A) serotonin B) acetylcholine C) adrenaline or noradrenaline D) all of the above E) none of the above
The parasympathetic nervous system has what effect on the heart's pacemaker? A) excites it B) inhibits it C) kills it D) has no effect at all E) has a variable effect; sometimes excites it, sometimes inhibits it
Which of the following statements about nervous systems is true? A) As nervous systems evolved, there was a trend toward a decreasing number of interneurons. B) As nervous systems evolved, the hindbrain and especially the cerebellum played an increasingly more dominant role. C) The autonomic nervous system stimulates normal internal body functions and inhibits alarm responses, while the somatic nervous system does the opposite. D) Memories appear to be stored in more than one part of the brain. E) The two hemispheres of the brain carry out identical functions.
A nerve impulse is received first by what part of the neuron? A) Axon B) Synapse C) Dendrite D) Soma
What occurs sequentially when the nerve impulse is transmitted from the synapse of one neuron to the postsynaptic neuron? A) The nerve impulse is transmitted next to the axon of the presynaptic neuron. B) The synaptic vesicles release neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft by exocytosis. C) The nerve impulse is transmitted to the postsynaptic neuron by a direct connection between the two. D) The nerve impulse is transmitted to the axon of the postsynaptic neuron.
A deer is frightened by a predator and runs away. Which of the following would not occur due to the action of epinephrine and norepinephrine? A) There would be increased blood flow to the skeletal muscles. B) There would be increased activity of the digestive system. C) There would be increased blood flow to the lungs and heart. D) Blood pressure would increase.
Which is true for the autonomic nervous system? A) The sympathetic nervous system always stimulates the organ system. B) The sympathetic nervous system always inhibits the organ system. C) The parasympathetic nervous system always stimulates the organ system. D) It depends on the organ system whether the division stimulates or inhibits it.
Which statement best defines saltatory conduction? A) Saltatory conduction is a mechanism of endocrine system regulation. B) Saltatory conduction is signal transduction of incoming messages through the membrane. C) Saltatory conduction is the influx of sodium ions during neuron impulse conduction. D) Saltatory conduction is transmission of nerve impulses along myelinated fibers. E) Saltatory conduction is the transmission of nerve impulses to the endocrine glands.
Which of the following is true for nerve impulses? A) They are electrochemical in nature. B) They are self-propagating. C) They are incremental. D) They are transmitted rapidly. E) All of these are true.
Afferent neurons are sensory neurons. A) True B) False
Efferent neurons carry nerve impulses to the CNS. A) True B) False
Ganglia are clusters of neuron cell bodies which are located outside the CNS. A) True B) False
Neuroglia cells are important for nerve impulse conduction. A) True B) False
The myelin sheaths surrounding myelinated neurons are manufactured by Schwann cells. A) True B) False
As long as ATP is available, the sodium/potassium pump of neurons will operate whether the neuron is resting, transmitting a nerve impulse, or returning to the resting state. A) True B) False
The centers of vision are located in the _______________ lobe of the cerebral cortex. A) temporal B) parietal C) occipital D) motor E) frontal
The cerebellum refines and coordinates muscular movements. A) True B) False
A sulcus is a furrow or groove associated with the cerebellum. A) True B) False
Dopamine is a nonpeptide neurotransmitter known to have an inhibitory effect on certain somatic motor pathways. A) True B) False
The chemical released by the motor neuron at the neuromuscular synapse that initiates a muscle contraction is: A) acetylcholine. B) adrenalin C) dopamine D) noradrenalin E) either a or d.