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Student Edition
Instructor Edition
Critical Thinking, 8/e

Brooke Noel Moore, California State University at Chico
Richard Parker, California State University at Chico

ISBN: 007312625x
Copyright year: 2007

Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Critical Thinking Basics

Other Concepts and Terms
Value Judgments
“Basic Critical Thinking Skills”
Two Kinds of Good Argument
    Deductive Arguments
    Inductive Arguments
Recognizing Arguments
    The Two Parts of an Argument
    The Language of Arguments
Two Confusions about Argument
    Arguments and Explanations
    Arguments and Persuasion
Relevance, Rhetoric, and Keeping a Clear Head
A Word about the Exercises

Chapter 2: Clear Thinking, Critical Thinking, and Clear Writing

Vague and Misleading Comparisons
Ambiguous Claims
    Semantic ambiguity
    Syntax ambiguity
    Grouping ambiguity
The Fallacies of Composition and Division
Recognizing and Deciphering Ambiguity
Defining Terms
    The Purpose of Definitions
    Types of Definitions
    Rhetorical Definitions
Writing Argumentative Essays
    Principles of organization and focus
    Good writing practices
Essay types to avoid
    Persuasive writing
Writing in a Diverse Society

Chapter 3: Credibility

The Claim and its Source
Assessing the Content of the Claim
    Does the Claim Conflict with Our Personal Observations?
    Does the Claim Conflict with our Background Information?
Credibility of a Source
Credibility and the News Media
    Government Management of the News
    Media Foul-Ups
    Bias within the Media
    Talk Radio
    The Internet

Chapter 4: Persuasion through Rhetoric: Common Devices and Techniques

Euphemisms and Dysphemisms
Rhetorical Comparisons, Definitions, and Explanations
Loaded Questions
Horse Laugh/Ridicule/Sarcasm
Proof Surrogates
Persuasive “Rhetoric” in Photographs and Other Images

Chapter 5: More Rhetorical Devices: Psychological and Related Fallacies

The “Argument” from Outrage
Scare Tactics
Other Fallacies based on Emotions
Everyone Knows…
Subjectivism Again…
The Relativist Fallacy
Two Wrongs Make a Right
Red Herring/Smokescreen

Chapter 6: More Fallacies

The Ad Hominem Fallacy
    The Personal Attack Ad Hominem
    The Inconsistency Ad Hominem
    Circumstantial Ad Hominem
    Poisoning the Well
Genetic Fallacy
“Positive Ad Hominem Fallacies”
Straw Man
False Dilemma
    The Perfectionist Fallacy
    Line Drawing Fallacy
Slippery Slope
Misplacing the Burden of Proof
Begging the Question

Chapter 7: The Anatomy and Varieties of Arguments

Arguments: General Features and Review
    Conclusions Used as Premises
    Unstated Premises and Conclusions
Deductive Logic
    A Mistaken Concept of Deduction
Inductive Logic
Unstated Premises
Identifying Unstated Premises
Techniques for Understanding Arguments
    Clarifying an Argument’s Structure
    Distinguishing Arguments from Window Dressing
Evaluating Arguments

Chapter 8: Deductive Arguments I: Categorical Logic

Categorical Claims
    Venn Diagrams
    Translation into Standard Form
    The Square of Opposition
Three Categorical Operations
Categorical Syllogisms
    The Venn Diagram Method of Testing for Validity
    Categorical Syllogisms with Unstated Premises
    Real-Life Syllogisms
    The Rules Method of Testing for Validity
Additional Exercises

Chapter 9: Deductive Arguments II: Truth-Functional Logic

Truth Tables and the Truth-Functional Symbols
    Claims Variables
    Truth Tables
    Symbolizing Compound Claims
Truth-functional Logic and Electrical Circuits
Symbolizing Compound Claims
    “If” and “Only If”
    Necessary and Sufficient Conditions
    Truth-Functional Arguments
Group I Rules: Elementary Valid Argument Patterns
    Rule 1: Modus ponens (MP), also known as affirming the antecedent
    Rule 2: Modus tollens (MT), also known as denying the consequent
    Rule 3: Chain Argument (CA)
    Rule 4: Disjunctive argument (DA)
    Rule 5: Simplification (SIM)
    Rule 6: Conjunction (CONJ)
    Rule 7: Addition (ADD)
    Rule 8: Constructive dilemma (CD)
    Rule 9: Destructive dilemma (DD)
Group II Rules: Truth-Functional Equivalences
    Rule 10: Double Negation (DN)
    Rule 11: Commutation (COM)
    Rule 12: Implication (IMPL)
    Rule 13: Contraposition (CONTR)
    Rule 14: DeMorgan’s Laws (DEM)
    Rule 15: Exportation (EXP)
    Rule 16: Association (ASSOC)
    Rule 17: Distribution (DIST)
    Rule 18: Tautology (TAUT)
Conditional Proof

Chapter 10: Inductive Arguments

Analogical Arguments
Inductive Generalizations
Formal and Informal Inductive Arguments
Example of a Formal Generalization: A Political Poll
Random Variation: Problems and Solutions
    Sample Size
Informal Inductive Arguments
    Informal Error Margins: “Cautious” Conclusions
    Informal Confidence Levels: Hedging our Bets
    Summing Up: Evaluating Inductive Generalizations and Analogical Arguments
Polls: Problems and Pitfalls
    Self-Selected Samples
    Slanted Questions
Playing by the Numbers

Chapter 11: Causal Arguments

Informal Causal Reasoning
Two Basic Patterns of Causal Reasoning
    Relevant Difference Reasoning
    Common-Thread Reasoning
Common Mistakes in Informal Causal Reasoning
General Causal Claims
    Controlled Cause-to-Effect Experiments
    Nonexperimental Cause-to-Effect Studies
    Nonexperimental Effect-to-Cause Studies
Appeal to Anecdotal Evidence
Doubtful Causal Claims/Hypotheses
Causal Explanations and Arguments
    Explanations and Excuses
Additional Exercises

Chapter 12: Moral, Legal, and Aesthetic Reasoning

Moral Evaluations
    Moral vs. Non-moral; Moral vs. Immoral
    Deriving Moral Value Judgments
    Consistency and Fairness
Major Perspectives in Moral Reasoning
    Duty Theory/Deontologism
    Divine Command Theory
    Virtue Ethics
Moral Deliberation
Legal Reasoning
    Legal Reasoning and Moral Reasoning Compared
    Two Types of Legal Studies: Justifying Laws and Interpreting Laws
    The Role of Precedent in Legal Reasoning
Aesthetic Reasoning
    Eight Aesthetic Principles
    Using Aesthetic Principles to Judge Aesthetic Value
    Evaluating Aesthetic Criticism: Relevance and Truth
Why Reason Aesthetically?
Additional Exercises

Appendix 1: Readings & Ads for Analysis

Selection 1: Three Strikes and the Whole Enchilada
Selection 2: Controlling Irrational Fears after 9/11
Selection 3: Excerpts from Federal Court Ruling on the Pledge of Allegiance
Selection 4: Gays’ Impact on Marriage Underestimated by Jeff Jacoby
Selection 5: Bush’ Environmental Record by Bob Herbert
Selection 6: Death Penalty Has no Place in U.S. by Cynthia Tucker
Selection 7: Hetero by Choice? A Radio Commentary by Richard Parker
Selection 8: Bonnie and Clyde
*Selection 9: Excerpt from “Disinformation on Judges” by Thomas Sowell
Selections 10A & 10B: Equal Treatment is Real Issue—Not Marriage from USA Today & Gay Marriage “Unnatural” by Rev. Louis P. Sheldon
*Selection 11: Excerpt from “Paying the Price for Bush’s Retro Energy Policy” by Arianna Huffington
*Selection 12: Excerpt from “Liberals Love America Like O.J. Loved Nicole” by Ann Coulter
Selection 13: Is God Part of Integrity? Editorial from Enterprise Record, Chico, CA
*Selection 14: Excerpt from ““Calling the Kettle Gay”
Selections 15A & 15B: Make Fast Food Smoke Free from USA Today & Don’t Overreact to Smoke by Brennan M. Dawson
Selections 16A & 16B: Buying Notes Makes Sense at Lost-in-Crowd Campuses from USA Today & Buying or Selling Notes is Wrong
Selections 17A & 17B: Next, Comprehensive Reform of Gun Laws from USA Today & Gun Laws Are No Answer
Selections 18: Letter from the National Rifle Association
Selections 19A & 19B: How Can School Prayer Possibly Hurt? Here’s How from USA Today & We Need More Prayer by Armstrong Williams
Selection 20: Do Women Really Need Affirmative Action? By Joanne Jacobs
Selection 21: Want Better Schools? Support Teachers by Dean Simpson Jr.
*Selection 22: “An American Revolution” ad
*Selection 23: “Can You Wait” Queen Mary ad
*Selection 24: “What tobacco issue is important to you?” ad
*Selection 25: “ROXY” ad
*Selection 26: “Cointreau” ad

Appendix 2: The Top Ten Fallacies of All Time

Appendix 3: The Scrapbook of Unusual Issues

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