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Circulations on Many Scales, and Their Interactions

Multiple Choice Quiz

Choose the best answer.


Which of the following cities does not typically receive lake effect snow?
A)Salt Lake City, Utah.
B)Toronto, Ontario.
C)Minneapolis, Minnesota.
D)Buffalo, New York.
E)None of these cities is affected by lake effect snow.

How does ensemble forecasting (at least partially) alleviate the effects of chaos?
A)It eliminates measurement errors, making long-term weather forecasts much more accurate.
B)It accounts for tiny errors in initial conditions by running a NWP model several times with slight variations in the initial input data.
C)It accounts for errors by running several different NWP models simultaneously, and combining the separate outputs into one 'average' model.
D)It kills that pesky Brazilian butterfly.

While climbing in the Appalachian Mountains one sunny summer afternoon, you experience a wind coming up from below. What is this called?
A)Katabatic wind.
C)Mountain breeze.
D)Valley breeze.
E)Land breeze.

Which of the following best describes the monsoon?
A)A long period of rain and wind.
B)A gigantic land/sea breeze system on a seasonal cycle.
C)A phenomena that affects only southern Asia.
D)A mesoscale thermal circulation.

Which of the following statements is false?
A)Sea breezes can sometimes result in showers and thunderstorms near the shore.
B)Smaller versions of sea/land breezes often form in the vicinity of large lakes.
C)Land breezes form mostly during the daytime hours.
D)Sea and land breezes are examples of thermal circulations.

There are approximately 4 to 5 long waves circling the hemisphere at any given moment. Given this, long waves would be an example of what scale?

Which of the following is responsible for extended periods of hot, humid weather in the eastern U.S. during the summer?
A)Pacific high.
B)Aleutian low.
C)Icelandic low.
D)Bermuda high.

Which of the following forces is insignificant for microscale circulations?
A)Pressure gradient force.
B)Coriolis force.
C)Centripetal force.

A sunny summer morning with light winds is followed by afternoon fair weather cumulus and breezy, variable winds. What is most likely causing the gusty winds?
A)Surface heating leads to convection and thermal turbulence, with stronger winds being mixed down to the surface.
B)A line of strong thunderstorms has moved into the area.
C)A warm front is moving into the area from the south.
D)Interaction of the air flow with buildings and trees leads to mechanical turbulence.

Which of the following is not associated with a strong El Niño episode?
A)Enhanced thunderstorm activity over the eastern Pacific Ocean.
B)Decreased anchovy harvests off the South American coast.
C)Strong high pressure over Australia.
D)Decreased predictability of major weather events (and increased blame on El Niño by some meteorologists).
E)All of these are associated with a strong El Niño.

The zonda is a warm, dry wind that blows down the slopes of the Andes Mountains of Argentina, and is often associated with rapid temperature rises. This is similar to the ________ that affects portions of North America.
A)dust devil
B)mountain breeze
C)katabatic wind

What mechanism(s) is/are responsible for clear air turbulence (CAT)?
A)Vertical wind shear.
B)Thermal convection.
C)Mechanical obstructions.
D)Air pockets.

Why are the 500-hPa winds faster in the summer hemisphere than the winter hemisphere?
A)Stronger north-south pressure gradient in the summer hemisphere.
B)Weaker north-south temperature gradient in the winter hemisphere.
C)Friction is stronger in the summer hemisphere.
D)A and B are correct.
E)B and C are correct.

Nor'easters that strike New England often occur with a high pressure area northeast of the storm, over Atlantic Canada. Why is the anticyclone important?
A)The strong pressure gradient between the high and low pressure systems result in strong winds.
B)Cold flow from the high increases the storm's thermal contrast, making a stronger cyclone.
C)Oceanic air provides the moisture that becomes heavy rain and/or snow.
D)All of the above.
E)None of these factors apply.

What principle(s) explain(s) the formation of dust devils?
B)Conservation of angular momentum.
C)Preexisting rotation (vorticity) of air parcels.
D)A and B.
E)A, B, and C.