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Brian Welch, one of the writers cited in the Introduction to this Issue, points out that discussions of sustainability, for example, do not balance out consumers' consciousness about switching to compact fluorescent light bulbs with a blindness to:
A)the need for basic healthcare.
B)transportation infrastructure needs.
C)inefficient home heating systems.
D)ballooning population size.
During a period of planned de-growth to achieve sustainability goals, in order to avoid a deep economic recession, people would need to be encouraged to spend their free time on:
A)thinking out their future goals.
B)assessing the possessions they currently have.
C)localized, community-based work.
D)family-oriented projects.
The most politicized issue with regard to sustainability is likely to be:
A)the high cost of renewable fuels.
B)disposing safely of waste material, including nuclear waste.
C)global climate change.
D)the responsibilities of developing countries.
The article authored by Bill McKibben supporting the YES position in this Issue was written to gain support for climate-change legislation just prior to:
A)a global meeting to discuss climate change.
B)a meeting of the nuclear powers to discuss safety changes in nuclear-energy production.
C)the annual meeting of the world's oil-producing nations.
D)the U.S. midterm elections.
Before the 1950s, the prevailing view in the West was that the environment was:
A)fragile and finite.
B)God's greatest creation.
C)the absolute possession of sovereign nations.
D)limitless and resilient.
The Environmental Kuznets Curve holds that countries can improve environmental quality through:
A)economic growth.
B)reducing foreign trade.
C)foreign capital investments.
D)adopting socially liberal policies.
Quality-of-life, nonmonetary indicators of a country's well-being that can be used to replace GDP as a measurement, include all of the following except:
B)life expectancy.
C)access to nutritious food.
D)availability of medical care.
A recent study of the values, attitudes, and behaviors necessary for underdeveloped countries to transition into a sustainable global entity without a revolution found that the most important value to sustain is:
A)a sense of community.
B)economic freedom.
C)respect for diversity.
D)the life-support systems of the environment.
China is now the leading consumer worldwide of all of the following except:
In China, it will be difficult to substitute coal as the primary energy source because:
A)it is reliably inexpensive.
B)the government has extensive subsidy programs in place.
C)the public is familiar with it.
D)coal is the only energy source that can meet all energy needs with domestic supply.
Globalization can produce significant environmental impacts, even as it raises the wealth of developing countries. This can be seen in outsourcing trends, in which emerging nations like China and India produce consumer goods:
A)for which they are paid little.
B)for multinational companies that do not have significant ties to their factory locations.
C)that will be purchased and consumed elsewhere.
D)that give their population an unobtainable desire for a consumer lifestyle.
Natural resources are often used in an unsustainable manner by impoverished communities because:
A)they lack the knowledge to properly manage these resources.
B)their efforts are encouraged by outsiders.
C)they can claim their practices are culturally traditional.
D)it is their only source of income.
Overall, the growing worldwide consumption of meat and poultry has resulted in:
A)greater pollution from animal waste.
B)an overuse of antibiotics.
C)a reduction in agricultural animal species.
D)increased demand for agricultural land.
National environmental policies that aim to reduce consumption overall tend to result in:
A)an eventual backlash in that country.
B)shifting environmental pressures from one country to another.
C)rising costs of even the most basic necessities.
D)an explosion of corruption and black market trade.
Technological optimists and technological skeptics have managed to find some common ground in the belief that:
A)the world can repair itself, if it receives some help from humanity.
B)there is still time to decide leisurely on the best way to act.
C)change is necessary to prevent global problems with sustainability.
D)humans are directly responsible for the problems facing the globe.
Some critics of technology as a fix for global problems maintain that cities are inherently unsustainable because they:
A)lead to crime and dehumanizing values.
B)derive most of their resources from outside the ecosystem.
C)can produce micro-climates of their own.
D)lead to a loss of biodiversity.
One of the most common arguments given in opposition to the monetization of ecosystem services is that markets by their nature:
A)exist indoors, apart from nature.
B)always look for the least-expensive option.
C)want to simplify choices as much as possible.
D)favor short-term consumption of goods and services.
Survey-based methodologies used to determine the value of natural resources are heavily criticized by opponents of environmental monetization because the public tends to focus on:
A)resources of which they have personal experience.
B)species that are well advertised through conservation campaigns.
C)easy, feel-good solutions.
D)proposals that will be enacted at a considerable distance from their community.
The closest thing to a carbon tax in the United States is the tax imposed by both states and the federal government on:
A)heating oil.
D)recyclable plastics.
The purpose of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendment was to rectify the problem of:
A)polluted ground water.
B)acid rain.
C)overuse of pesticides.
D)particulate smog.
Bruce Katz, who believes that sustainable urban development requires more policy intervention and planning, says that the American economy, with office, commercial, and retail facilities increasingly located along suburban freeways, is rapidly becoming what he calls:
A)a “drive by” economy.
B)an “exit ramp” economy.
C)an “exurban campus” economy.
D)a “suburban-centric” economy.
David B. Resnick, who does not believe that sustainable urban development requires more policy intervention and planning, suggests instead that the issues related to smart growth could be addressed by:
A)existing federal departments, such as HUD.
B)individual developers on a case-by-case basis.
C)local leaders, such as mayors or town councils.
D)deliberative democracy.
The greatest proportion of fresh water not used for basic human needs is diverted for irrigation purposes or:
A)contaminated by industry.
B)allowed to evaporate.
C)privately controlled.
D)lost through leaking pipes.
David Hall and Emanuele Lobina, who do not believe that water should be privatized, point first of all to the failure of privatization in:
Benjamin S. Halpern, who believes that our marine resources can be sustainably managed, says that until recently, in planning the design and placement of marine reserves, little work has been done to understand or include:
A)biological impact.
B)economic impact.
C)political impact.
D)social impact.
Andrew A. Rosenberg, Jill H. Swasey, and Margaret Bowman, who do not believe that our marine resources can be sustainably managed, assert that the fundamental control variable in fisheries science is:
A)funds available to manage marine reserves.
B)climate, including storms such as hurricanes that affect the marine environment.
C)the proportion of the stock removed each year by fishing.
D)competence of the personnel in management.
Although natural gas is a far cleaner fuel than diesel or gasoline, it is primarily used as a fuel for transportation in:
A)recreational vehicles.
B)luxury automobiles.
C)farm equipment.
D)fleet vehicles.
The development of horizontal drilling to extract shale gas has reduced the environmental impact of the mining process because:
A)the risk of overflow spills has been reduced.
B)overall infrastructure has been downsized.
C)less water is needed in the mining activity.
D)fewer workers are needed to supervise the drilling.
Globally, the largest threat to endangered species is:
A)habitat loss.
B)climate change.
C)invasive predators.
D)the international wildlife trade.
The Anthropocene is a new geological era that will be characterized primarily by:
A)mass extinction of species.
B)decreasing land mass.
C)human alteration of ecosystems.
D)accelerated evolution of many species.
The reduced soil carbon in many agricultural areas of the world, including the U.S. Midwest, contributes to all of the following except:
A)soil erosion.
B)vulnerability to drought.
C)lessened resistance to disease.
D)decreasing nutrient value.
Studies in Mesoamerica have provided evidence that agricultural landscapes and practices can contribute to biodiversity if these areas:
A)maintain abundant tree cover.
B)are free of many pesticides.
C)have a minimal human presence.
D)retain sufficient clean-water sources.
A. Adamantiades and I. Kessides, who believe that nuclear energy can be a sustainable resource, state that for nuclear power, the major cost component is the cost of:
C)operations and maintenance.
D)decommissioning and storage of waste.
Milton H. Saier and Jack T. Trevors, who do not believe that nuclear energy can be a sustainable resource, believe that nuclear power plants are not good, safe investments because there's no investment coming from:
B)the U.S. government.
C)Wall Street.
D)venture capitalists.
Richard Dahl, who believes that corporate sustainability is more public relations than real, refers to the attempts of companies to appear to be sustainable without actually making changes in their operations by the term:
B)faux environmentalism.
C)business as usual.
Cristiano Busco et al., who do not believe that corporate sustainability is more public relations than real, identify three main levels at which sustainability principles impact a company; these include all of the following except:
A)human resources.
B)strategic thinking.
D)managerial processes.
Michael Laff, who believes that social concerns are taken seriously in the "triple bottom line" of sustainability, describes workers at the California plant of Interface Carpet donning jumpsuits on Saturdays to go:
A)help build houses for earthquake victims.
B)install free carpet into HUD housing.
C)retrieve recyclable products from the garbage in a local landfill.
D)paint graffiti-covered walls in inner-city neighborhoods.
Frank Vanclay, who does not believe that social concerns are taken seriously in the "triple bottom line" of sustainability, rejects the triple bottom line as a "quaint turn of phrase" and argues instead for the use of:
A)sustainability model reporting.
B)developmental metrics.
C)declaration of social change.
D)social impact assessment.
Stephen M. Wheeler, who believes that cities are sustainable, reports that the term "sustainable development" came into existence in the:
A)nineteenth century.
C)early 1970s.
D)late 1990s.
Giok Ling Ooi, who does not believe cities are sustainable, explains that there are three capital cities in Southeast Asia with populations of more than 5 million people:
A)Hanoi, Saigon, and Bitung.
B)Manila, Jakarta, and Bangkok.
C)Singapore, Malang, and Bandung.
D)Kuala Lumpur, Phnom Penh, and Surabaya.

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