Environmental Science, 11th Edition (Cunningham)

Chapter 7: Human Populations

Practice Quiz

The world's population increases by about _____________ people per year.
B)8 million
C)75 million
D)800 million
Malthus contended that
A)by providing additional workers human population growth enhanced economic development.
B)humans can produce babies faster than they can produce commensurate amounts of food.
C)poverty causes resource depletion rather than the reverse.
D)all of the above are true.
Factors increasing earth's ability to support humans that Malthus did not anticipate include
A)dramatic increases in agricultural productivity.
B)cheap fuel sources.
C)improved efficiency in extraction and use of natural resources.
D)all of the above.
The greatest future growth in human numbers is expected to occur in the
A)rich countries of Europe and North America.
B)rich Asian countries including Japan.
C)developing nations.
Age structure graphs express
A)whether a population is declining, growing, or stable.
B)the proportion of a population at various ages.
C)the proportion of people approaching reproductive age as well as those of reproductive age
In general, countries with the highest fertility rates are those
A)with the greatest untapped natural resources.
B)among the poorest on earth.
C)with the highest life expectancies.
D)with low infant mortality rates.
The natural increase of a population is defined as
A)the total number of individuals entering a population by birth or immigration per year.
B)the crude birth rate less the crude death rate.
C)the total number of children added to a population less the number who are adopted.
D)the number of additions to a population by any means.
In general, life expectancy
A)rises with increased annual income.
B)rises with increased annual income but only up to about $4000.
C)bears no consistent relationship to annual income.
D)is greatest among country peasants.
Factors linked with reduction in the number of children couples plan to have include
A)increased educational level of women.
B)desire to spend family income on things other than raising children.
C)increased earning levels of women.
D)all of the above.
A belief that many poorer countries will not be able to complete the demographic transition without crash programs to reduce population growth is described as the
A)pessimistic view.
B)optimistic view.
C)social justice view.
D)ecojustice view.
Worldwide, use of contraceptives in recent years has
A)stayed about the same.
B)increased dramatically.
C)decreased dramatically.
Neo-Malthusians feel aggressive birth control efforts should be our top priority.
Julian Simon was convinced that without fundamental social and economic changes, environmental damage will accelerate.
Reductions in death rates in recent centuries are due more to better food and sanitation than modern medicine.
The demographic transition generally accompanies economic development.
Factors that have historically limited human population growth include
C)Abstinence and other cultural taboos
D)All of the above
After the year 1600, the human population began to grow more rapidly, owing to which of the following factors?
A)Increases in commerce and communication on a global scale
B)New agricultural developments
C)Better health care and improved hygiene
D)1, 2, and 3 are correct
E)1 and 2 are correct
The economist Karl Marx believed that ______.
A)human population growth is a consequence of poverty and other social ills
B)improving social conditions will only make people consume resources faster, lowering the carrying capacity of the earth
C)new technologies are the cause of explosive population growth
D)None of the above.
Zero Population Growth (ZPG) occurs when _______.
A)women in a given society are opting not to have children
B)the birth rate equals the death rate plus the emigration rate
C)birth rate plus immigration is equal to the death rate plus emigration
D)None of the above
Population momentum _______.
A)leads to many years of continued population growth
B)occurs when most of the population is young
C)is commonly associated with abstinence
D)1 and 2 are correct
E)1 and 3 are correct
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