Traditions and Encounters, AP Edition (Bentley), 5th Edition

Chapter 23: The Transformation of Europe

Interactive Map Quiz


Map A. Black Death

This interactive map illustrates the spread of the Black Death during the fourteenth century. The plague, carried by fleas on Asian black rats, originated in the East and was brought to Europe by Genoese trading vessels in the late 1340s. From there, it quickly spread throughout Europe via trade routes, both land and sea. In a time when overpopulation, poor sanitation, and malnutrition were common, Europe easily fell victim to the Black Death.

What part might geography have played in controlling or moderating the spread of the Black Death?


What are some of the reactions that a fatal and indiscriminant killer, such as the Black Death, might provoke?


With some statistics suggesting that as much as fifty percent of Europe's population fell victim to the plague, what are the social implications that such a death toll might have?


Map B. Peace of Westphalia

The Peace of Westphalia was comprised of several treaties that finally ended the Thirty Years' War. This heralded in the age of independent, sovereign states in Europe. No longer was the Holy Roman Emperor considered the reigning authority over the entire region. Each state was able to determine its own political and religious autonomy, which meant that Europe was no longer united by a common religion. Because of the treaties, many borders changed, and the balance of power shifted as well. Even though this ended a long period of warfare in European history, many issues were left unaddressed, and several territorial wars were fought over the next two centuries. This interactive map details the boundaries before and after the treaties, as well as the religious denomination of the different regions.

Discuss the geographical origins of capitalism in Europe during this period. Did it emerge from the towns or from the countryside?


Did Constitutional States flourish in one particular area of Europe?


Explain how the Enlightenment changed the way Europeans saw their relationship to religion.


Compare the religious and political map of Europe between 1500 and 1800. Do you see a more unified or a more divided Europe at the end of that period?

Traditions & Encounters, 5e
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