Which of the following statements about personality disorders is true?
|A)||By definition, personality disorders must be present continuously since childhood.|
|B)||The majority of people diagnosed with one personality disorder meet the diagnostic criteria for at least one other personality disorder.|
|C)||Since personality disorders are treated differently than acute disorders, medical conditions, or life stressors by the DSM-IV, they are placed on Axis III.|
|D)||Because they are more debilitating, people with personality disorders seek treatment more often than people with acute disorders.|
Choose the answer below that contains an odd-eccentric personality disorder listed next to (a), a dramatic-emotional personality disorder listed next to (b), and an anxious-fearful personality disorder listed next to (c).
|A)||(a) schizoid personality disorder; (b) dependent personality disorder; (c) obsessive-compulsive personality disorder.|
|B)||(a) obsessive-compulsive personality disorder;(b) paranoid personality disorder;(c) avoidant personality disorder.|
|C)||(a) paranoid personality disorder; (b) borderline personality disorder; (c) dependent personality disorder.|
|D)||(a) obsessive-compulsive personality disorder; (b) dependent personality disorder; (c) schizoid personality disorder.|
Which of the following is not a criticism of the DSM-IV criteria for personality disorders?
|A)||Reliability of the diagnostic criteria is low.|
|B)||Personality disorders are treated as if they are extreme versions of normal traits rather than being treated as qualitatively distinct from normal traits.|
|C)||Criteria are gender-biased against women in some cases and against men in others.|
|D)||Information required for a personality diagnosis is often hard to obtain from clients.|
According to psychodynamic theorists, people with paranoid personality disorder are riddled with hostile feelings that they ______________ and _________________, two defense mechanisms.
Which of the following descriptions fits the parents of people with paranoid personality disorder?
|A)||They are critical and intolerant of any weakness but also emphasize that the child is "special" and "different," resulting in a child who is hypersensitive to others' evaluations and who believes that he or she is being persecuted for being different.|
|B)||They are harsh and inconsistent often alternating between being neglectful, being hostile, and being violent toward their children.|
|C)||They derive pleasure from their child's dependence on them in early life, do not encourage the child to develop a separate sense of self, and punish the child's attempts at individuation.|
|D)||They overindulge their child, instilling in the child a grandiose sense of abilities that the child is not able to live up to, and yet, the child will continue to act as if he or she is superior to others.|
According to cognitive theories, people with schizoid personality disorder:
|A)||have low self-regard and reject other people and social interactions out of a fear of being rejected themselves.|
|B)||have beliefs that other people are malevolent and deceptive, which combines with a lack of self-confidence about being able to defend themselves against others, and leads them to be suspicious and rejecting of others.|
|C)||have had a severely disturbed mother-child relationship and have never learned to give or receive love.|
|D)||have cognitive styles that are impoverished and unresponsive to cues that produce emotions.|
Which of the following is not a cognitive anomaly exhibited by people with schizotypal personality disorder?
|A)||odd beliefs and magical thinking|
|D)||ideas of reference|
Which of the following is not a way in which schizotypal personality disorder resembles schizophrenia?
|A)||Both schizophrenics and schizotypals have difficulty initiating, sustaining, and controlling their attention on cognitive tasks.|
|B)||Both schizophrenics and schizotypals have enlarged ventricles.|
|C)||Both schizophrenics and schizotypals experience hallucinations and delusions.|
|D)||Both schizophrenics and schizotypals have odd or inappropriate emotional responses.|
The most striking gender difference among the personality disorders appears in __________ personality disorder, where men are five times more likely to be diagnosed with the disorder than are females.
Which of the following is false about antisocial personality disorder?
|A)||People with antisocial personality disorder are more likely to have low levels of education.|
|B)||The tendency to engage in antisocial behaviors tends to begin in childhood and is one of the most stable personality characteristics.|
|C)||People with antisocial personality disorder have difficulty in inhibiting impulsive behaviors.|
|D)||People with antisocial personality disorder have high levels of arousability, which leads them to avoid stimulation through impulsive and dangerous acts and to experience punishment as less severe.|
The personality disorder characterized by instability, which object relations theorists attribute to "splitting" and cognitive theorists attribute to "dichotomous thinking" is
|A)||paranoid personality disorder.|
|B)||dependent personality disorder.|
|C)||borderline personality disorder.|
|D)||histrionic personality disorder.|
Relatives of people with __________ personality disorder have higher rates of schizophrenia than control subjects; relatives of people with __________ personality disorder have higher rates of mood disorders than control subjects.
The personality disorder that is diagnosed more often in women than in men and is characterized by rapidly shifting emotions, unstable relationships, and highly dramatic and seductive behaviors performed to gain the attention and approval of others, is known as:
|A)||narcissistic personality disorder.|
|B)||dependent personality disorder.|
|C)||histrionic personality disorder.|
|D)||antisocial personality disorder.|
Individuals low in _________________ are cynical, rude, suspicious, uncooperative, and irritable.
|D)||openness to experience|
Psychoanalytic theorists believe dependent personality disorder results from fixation at the _______________ stage of development and obsessive-compulsive disorder results from fixation at the _________________ stage of development.
All of the following are cognitive oddities in people with schizotypal personality disorder except:
|A)||Ideas of reference.|
|C)||Tangential, circumstantial, or vague speech.|
People with antisocial personality disorder exhibit all of the following except:
|A)||Deficits in the parietal lobes of the brain.|
|B)||Poor impulse control.|
|C)||Deficits in executive functions.|
|D)||Difficulty inhibiting impulsive behaviors.|
People with _____ are heavy users of mental health services, in contrast to people with other personality disorders.
The interpersonal circumplex model classifies personality along two dimensions, one of which is:
|A)||Introversion - extraversion.|
|B)||Dominance - submission.|
|C)||Agreeableness - unagreeableness.|
|D)||Nurturance - schizoid.|