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Practice Final Exam
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The text states that social psychology
A)is the most important perspective in viewing and understanding ourselves.
B)is one important perspective from which we can view and understand ourselves.
C)is the real explanation that lets us understand and view ourselves.
D)is an inclusive perspective from which we can view and understand ourselves.

One reason you may not study so hard for your first test in this class is because
A)you believe you are too smart for the class.
B)you want to fail out of school.
C)who cares about GPA anyway?
D)social psychology seems obvious because of the hindsight bias.

Researcher Kohl Berg argues that a child's gender development is directly related to his/her cognitive development. This observation is called a(n)

Researcher Zajonc is interested in whether the mere presence of others affects individual behavior. He designs a study in which individuals are brought in and asked to make a speech to either an empty room or a room with five people in it. This type of study is best described as ______.
A)a correlational study.
B)naturalistic observation.
C)a case study.
D)a laboratory experiment.

An investigator who wishes to study the attitudes of people in Illinois identifies 1,000 people in Illinois, taking care that the percentages of male and female, black and white, young and old are the same in the sample as in state's total population. What kind of sample is the investigator trying to obtain?
A)an independent sample.
B)a dependent sample.
C)a random sample.
D)a representative sample.

I ask you to describe who you are and you tell me your sex, age, political preference, personality traits, and other information you think is relevant. You are describing your
A)possible selves.

When you walk into a restaurant and everyone in the room looks—well, homely, if not ugly—you feel better about yourself and attractive. This is due to
A)your conceit.
B)social identity.
C)self-reference effects.
D)social comparison effects.

Western cultures are _____ whereas Eastern cultures tend to be _____.
A)collectivistic; individualistic.
B)group-oriented; self-oriented.
C)socially oriented; materialistic.
D)individualistic; collectivistic.

Oftentimes individuals who are hard on their luck and on welfare seem to "give up," feeling like there is nothing they can do. This illustrates
A)unrealistic optimism.
B)a self-serving bias.
C)learned helplessness.
D)an increase in self-monitoring.

People who act like "social chameleons"—those who seem to change behavior and attitudes to fit every situation they're in—are generally considered
A)low self-monitors.
B)high self-monitors.
C)to be using the self-serving bias.
D)high in self-efficacy.

Your friend just took a new job. She meets you for drinks after her first week on the job and complains about her boss. This surprises you because you've never heard her complain about a boss before, and she rarely complains in general. Kelley argues that this information helps us explain her behavior because her boss is

People are less inclined to help those on welfare because of
A)the suspicious schema.
B)the actor/observer effect.
C)the self-serving bias.
D)the fundamental attribution error.

After the movie Jaws came out, and again in the early 1990s after "Summer of the Shark," many people were afraid to go in the ocean. This is due to
A)the representative heuristic.
B)belief perseverance.
C)the availability heuristic.
D)the confirmation bias.

"It always rains after I wash the car." This statement is an example of
A)inferential statistics.
B)the confirmation bias.
C)an illusory correlation.
D)a positive correlation.

When our behavior is out of sync with our attitudes it is called
A)attitude incongruity.
B)the attitude-behavior dissimilarity theory.
C)attitude inoculation.
D)cognitive dissonance.

Dissonance theory explains attitude _____ while self-perception theory explains attitude __________.
A)formation; change.
B)incongruity; justification.
C)change; formation.
D)justification; incongruity.

Self-perception theory argues that people will adopt attitudes consistent with behaviors in order to
A)figure out the dominant response.
B)reduce tension.
C)determine how they should behave.
D)create good impressions.

A teenager is out with her friends at the mall. Although she doesn't believe in shoplifting, when they all take earrings and put them in their pockets, she does as well. As a result, she will most likely experience
A)cognitive dissonance.
B)the attitude-behavior dissimilarity theory.
C)attitude inoculation.
D)attitude incongruity.

If pollsters outside elections polls survey entering votersin on which candidate they prefer, and then ask exiting voters of the voting booth who they actually voted for, they would generally find a high correlation between initial preference and actual vote. In this specific example, this is because
A)in general, attitudes specific to a behavior are excellent predictors.
B)when an attitude is strong it is an excellent predictor of behavior.
C)when social pressures are low, an attitude is an excellent predictor of behavior.
D)attitudes are strong when you share them with your friends.

The adaptive change in frequency of specific genes over generations is
A)natural selection.
B)species heredity.
D)differential reproduction.

In egalitarian societies
A)males do less than in non-egalitarian societies.
B)evolutionary demands on mating preferences are less.
C)women do less than men.
D)women are the authoritative figures.

Which of the following is NOT characteristic of females?
A)they are more sensitive to anxiety.
B)they are more sensitive to smells and sounds.
C)they are more likely to be depressed.
D)they are more likely to commit suicide.

The power of the person is called
B)social control.
C)environmental control.
D)personal control.

One criticism of evolutionary psychology's speculation about sex and gender is that
A)it reinforces gender stereotypes.
B)it may show males and females are the same.
C)it may find males are inferior to women and thus lead to a reverse sexism.
D)it may replace efforts in other areas of social psychology like group dynamics.

After Marilyn Monroe's suicide there were 200 more suicides in the United States than was typical. This was due the suspected effects of
A)mass hysteria.
B)mass destruction.
C)mass suggestibility.
D)mass ignorance.

Milgram's study was so successful because it used
A)the bogus pipeline technique.
B)the low-ball technique.
C)the door-in-the-face technique.
D)the foot-in-the-door technique.

Milgram found
A)ignorant people accept commands more readily than smart people.
B)high-status people accept commands more readily than low-status people.
C)attractive people accept commands more readily than unattractive people.
D)low-status people accept commands more readily than high-status people.

Concern for social image involves_____influence; the desire to be correct involves_____ influence[AG2][SAB3] .
A)normative; informational.
B)qualitative; proximal.
C)informational; normative.
D)proximal; qualitative.

Baumeister and others argue that a man may become frustrated over his restricted freedom if the woman he's trying to have sex with refuses his advances. Such a man may become sexually aggressive due to
D)reaction formation.

Persuasion is
A)the process by which a message induces attitude change.
B)a change in behavior or belief as a result of real or imagined group pressure.
C)the process by which a message induces a change in behavior.
D)a change in behavior or belief as a result of a direct order from someone.

Which of the following is more likely to produce change?
A)elaborative route persuasion.
B)peripheral route persuasion.
C)implicit route persuasion.
D)central route persuasion.

Jaime's mother died of a smoking-related illness. He is now fervently anti-smoking because of the strong emotional component of his attitude. What type of anti-smoking message is he more likely to be persuaded by?
A)a credible communicator.
B)an attractive communicator.
C)the reciprocity factor.
D)an emotional appeal.

Persuasion _____ as the significance and familiarity of the issue _____.
A)decreases; increases.
B)stays the same; increases.
C)increases; decreases.
D)increases; stays the same.

Credibility is
A)the same as liking.
B)perceived expertise and trustworthiness.
C)the same as attractiveness.
D)how likely you are to be persuaded by someone.

Social facilitation is the tendency for the presence of others
A)to affect our likelihood to help.
B)to either enhance or impair performance.
C)to only impair our performance.
D)to only improve our performance.

The dominant response, Zajonc argues,
A)should boost performance on easy tasks and hurt performance on difficult tasks.
B)should always lead to an improvement in performance.
C)should boost performance on difficult tasks and hurt performance on easy tasks.
D)should increase the the performer feels.

When you perform a task in front of others that are blindfolded, social facilitation effects are void. This finding supports which theory of social facilitation?
A)social facilitation.
C)evaluation apprehension.
D)mere presence effects.

Can social loafing be reduced?
A)no, social loafing is inevitable.
B)yes, by having females work on the task.
C)yes, by making individual's work identifiable.
D)yes, by doing research in countries other than the United States.

The phenomenon of risky shift is the finding
A)that group decisions are often riskier once groupthink sets in.
B)that individual decisions are often riskier than group decisions.
C)that individuals help less when others are around.
D)that group decisions often encourage riskier actions than individual decisions.

Goldberg (1968) asked female students to evaluate essays hypothetically written by a male or female. He found
A)whites were more prejudiced against men.
B)blacks were more prejudiced against men.
C)women were more prejudiced against women.
D)men were more prejudiced against women.

Stereotypes are to _____ as prejudices are to _____.
A)behavior; beliefs.
B)beliefs; behavior.
C)cognition; behavior.
D)beliefs; attitudes.

Realistic conflict theory holds that
A)competition between groups for recognition leads to prejudice.
B)competition between groups for scarce resources leads to prejudice.
C)it is obvious that groups will always be in conflict because of evolution.
D)competition between groups over perceived inequalities leads to prejudice.

Whereas the _____ theory of prejudice is based on competition for resources, _____ is based on a need to see one's group as "better."
A)evolutionary; social competition theory.
B)social identity; realistic conflict theory.
C)realistic conflict; social identity theory
D)social identity; drive theory.

In cases of rape, many believe that the victim somehow deserved it. This reaction is best explained by
A)the mere exposure effect.
C)the just-world hypothesis.
D)the hindsight bias.

Because you dislike one of your coworkers, you lie and tell others you overheard her saying how she disliked everyone at the office. This would be an example of what kind of aggression?

A man leaves a bomb on a bus to kill innocent victims in order to persuade a government to yield to his demands. This would be an example of what kind of aggression?

Instinct theories of aggression suggest that people
A)are unlikely to engage in aggression.
B)fear aggression by instinct.
C)are "programmed" for aggression.
D)are primed to learn aggression.

When we are stuck in traffic or behind slow people in line at the store, often the proverbial "fuse" on our temper is at its end. Researchers argue that this is because
A)driving arouses us.
B)in our cars we are less polite.
C)driving is deindividuation.
D)frustration can facilitate aggression.

Frustration arises from the gap between _____ and _____.
A)belief; behavior.
B)learning; behavior.
C)expectations; attainments
D)behavior; attitudes

Research in the laboratory and in real life suggests that pain, personal attacks, and overcrowding are _____ experiences that _____ the likelihood aggression.
A)frustrating; decrease.
B)frustrating; do not affect
C)aversive; decrease.
D)aversive; increase.

Researchers have finally answered the third factor variable in the viewing of aggressive media and the performing of aggressive behaviors. They found
A)aggressive behavior follows the viewing of aggressive media.
B)there is no relationship between viewing aggressive behavior and modeling it.
C)only some types of aggressive media are bad.
D)only violent pornography causes aggressive behavior.

Laura goes to a party on campus. She talks to four different men about personal interests, politics, and religion. Which of the following is she MOST likely to want to go out with again?
A)Brett, who is unbelievably hot but has nothing in common with her.
B)Lee who doesn't agree with her on any topic and is moderately attractive.
C)Fred who is unattractive but rich.
D)Bobby, who is average-looking but agrees with her on all topics.

Roughly what percent of infants display a secure attachment?

Whereas similarity _____; dissimilarity _____.
A)has minimal affect on liking; has no affect on liking.
B)increases liking; decreases liking.
C)has no affect on liking; has no affect on liking.
D)decreases liking; increases liking.

You are speaking with one of your coworkers, praising them for having done a great job on a recent project. You then ask if they can help with one of your projects that is due tomorrow. This strategy is called

When romantic dinners, dates out, nice dinners at home, and vacations continue in a relationship, couples last longer and are happier because they associate the relationship with positive things. This is best posited by
A)the reward theory of attraction.
B)anticipatory-liking theory.
C)complementary hypothesis.
D)mere exposure effect.

When your campus has a blood drive you might weigh the costs (e.g., time, fatigue, needles, etc.) against the benefits (e.g., feeling good, free food, etc.) before deciding to donate. This strategy would be predicted by
A)social exchange theory.
B)just-world hypothesis.
C)egoism hypothesis.
D)reciprocity norm.

Skinner argues we only credit people for good deeds when we can't explain them. We attribute behavior to _____ only when we lack _____.
A)external explanations; dispositional explanations.
B)dispositions; external explanations.
C)external causes; internal ones.
D)internal causes; dispositional causes.

After I lend my neighbor a cup of milk, I feel comfortable asking her to watch my house while I'm vacation. This is due to my ascribing to
A)social exchange theory.
C)the reciprocity norm.
D)social capital.

The tragic murder of Kitty Genovese in New York motivated researchers Latane and Darley to investigate (the)
A)bystander intervention.
B)aggressive behavior.
C)mere exposure effect.
D)social responsibility norm.

Kin selection is to evolutionary theory, as reward is to _____.
A)social exchange theory.
B)reciprocity norm.
C)evolutionary theory.
D)social responsibility norm.

One reason for the occurrence of bystander apathy is
A)the reciprocity norm.
B)the social exchange theory.
C)the social responsibility norm.
D)a diffusion of responsibility.

Two suspects are arrested for allegedly committing a bank robbery. The police tell them that if one confesses, the confessor will be set free and the other will take the fall for the crime. The suspects are confronted with
A)the prisoner's dilemma.
B)the tragedy of the commons.
D)social dilemma.

People overfishing when they know the fish might be depleted is
A)the prisoner's dilemma.
B)the tragedy of the commons.
D)a social dilemma.

What allowed the two groups in Sherif's Robber's Cave study to finally get along?
A)the formation of superordinate goals.
B)the formation of subordinate goals.
D)exposure to nonprejudiced models.

You hear a rumor that a coworker has said something about you, so you snub them. As a result, your coworker does say something bad about you. This example shows
A)self-confirming perceptions.
B)reciprocally fulfilling perceptions.
C)how mirror-image perceptions become self-fulfilling.
D)equitably fulfilling perceptions.

When we believe that a relationship exists between two things we are
A)more likely to notice the times that this belief was confirmed.
B)less likely to see any co-occurrences of other events.
C)more likely to notice the times that this belief was disconfirmed
D)more likely to look for other co-occurrences of events.

In a classic study, Rosenhan, et al., had confederates check into a mental hospital and reported hearing voices. All other information presented to the administrator and doctor was accurate and no other symptoms were reported. The study reported that
A)they were all found out within one week.
B)most were diagnosed as schizophrenic and remained hospitalized for 2 to 3 weeks.
C)they were all found out immediately.
D)they were all kept in the hospital for at least a month.

"Ignorance is bliss" would be the flipside of
A)depressive realism.
B)a positive explanatory style.
C)a realistic explanatory style.
D)the illusion of transparency.

Saying "sunscreen will maintain healthy, young-looking skin" is different and more effective than saying "not using sunscreen decreases your chances of healthy young skin." This is because the former
A)states more factual information.
B)is framed more positively than the latter.
C)is framed more negatively than the latter.
D)doesn't rely on statistics.

When researchers pit intuition against statistical prediction
A)statistical prediction and expert intuition do equally well.
B)statistical prediction is usually superior to expert intuition.
C)expert intuition is usually superior to statistical prediction.
D)both methods fare no better than chance.

Witnesses that tend to be more accurate often
A)have a vivid memory for trivial details.
B)remember the event perfectly.
C)have a poor memory for trivial details.
D)have had their memories hypnotically refreshed. .

The misinformation effect is in part due to
A)open-ended questions.
B)bad police work.
C)racial prejudice.
D)suggestive questions.

In acquaintance rape trials, men more often than women judge the defendant "not guilty." This may be due to the fact that
A)men really hate women.
B)we are less sympathetic to defendants with whom we can identify.
C)men are more authoritarian then women.
D)we are more sympathetic to defendants with whom we can identify.

To reduce false memories and inaccuracy in eyewitness recollection during police questioning, most police now use
B)leading questions.
C)sodium amatol.
D)a cognitive interview procedure.

In poor countries _____ but in wealthy countries _____.
A)money doesn't predict happiness; it does.
B)money predicts happiness; the correlationdiminishes.
C)the number of offspring predicts happiness; it doesn't.
D)age predicts happiness; it does as well.

If you constantly get A's in classes and then get a B, you are upset. This is due to
A)relative deprivation.
B)the mirror-image effect.
C)the cost-of-living phenomenon.
D)the adaptation-level phenomenon.

After watching a television program about twenty-somethings living in great apartments, driving great cars, and having great lives, a twenty-something feels her life is unsatisfying. This is due to
A)the mirror-image effect.
B)upward social comparison.
C)lateral comparison.
D)downward social comparison.

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