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Chapter 29: HIV Disease and Complications of Immunodeficiency
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Dulbecco, Temin, and Baltimore won a Nobel Prize for their discovery of
A)T cells.
C)reverse transcriptase.
E)a blood test for HIV.
Common early symptoms of HIV disease include all of the following EXCEPT:
C)generalized rash.
E)swollen lymph nodes.
Which of the following is NOT characteristic of HIV?
B)single-stranded RNA.
D)enveloped virus.
E)double-stranded DNA.
All of the following statements about HIV-2 are correct EXCEPT:
A)HIV-2 is a lentivirus.
B)The genome of HIV-2 differs from HIV-1 by more than 55%.
C)HIV-2 is a prominent cause of AIDS in parts of West Africa and India.
D)HIV-2 transmission is more efficient than HIV-1.
E)HIV-2 disease progression is slower than HIV-1.
Which of the following proteins are NOT encoded by the HIV genome?
A)gp120 surface glycoprotein.
B)p17 matrix protein.
C)HLA antigen.
D)gp41 transmembrane protein.
E)p24 capsid protein.
Which of the following HIV proteins are targets for antiviral drugs?
A)gp120 and gp41.
B)tat and nef.
C)protease and reverse transcriptase.
D)nef and rev.
E)All of the above.
Which of the following cells and consequences of HIV infection are mismatched?
A)brain cells - lethargy and dementia.
B)intestinal epithelium - chronic diarrhea and weight loss.
C)macrophages - increased phagocytosis.
D)T helper cells - impaired secretion of cytokines and depletion.
E)All of the above are correct.
Which of the following statements about HIV infection is NOT TRUE?
A)HIV requires binding of CD4 and a co-receptor to enter cells.
B)Penetration into host cell requires gp41.
C)Cellular reverse transcriptase makes a DNA copy of the viral genome.
D)Viral integrase inserts viral DNA into the host chromosome, forming a provirus.
E)Viral DNA is not inserted into a specific location on the host chromosome.
Which of the following statements about the origin of HIV is NOT TRUE?
A)HIV was present in Africa in the 1950s.
B)HIV was first recognized in the U.S. in the early 1980s.
C)AIDS-causing viruses probably jumped to humans from chimpanzees through contact with their blood.
D)AIDS-causing viruses may have existed for many years in people living in isolated African villages.
E)All of the statements above are correct.
Which of the following statements about HIV is NOT TRUE?
A)HIV is highly conserved genetically.
B)Variability is due to the high rate of error of reverse transcriptase.
C)Some regions of the genome are highly conserved.
D)The gene encoding gp120 has both highly conserved and highly variable regions.
E)The variability of gp120 complicates developing an effective vaccine.
HIV-infected Th cells are destroyed by any of the following EXCEPT:
A)lysis, following productive infection.
C)cytotoxic T cells.
D)natural killer cells.
E)All of the above destroy Th cells.
Which of the following statements about most cases of HIV infection is NOT TRUE?
A)The body loses CD4+ cells at a rate of 50 cells/ml/year.
B)The body replaces a billion CD4+ cells per day.
C)An acute retroviral syndrome occurs with acute viremia one to six weeks after infection.
D)Antibodies against HIV may be detected the day after infection.
E)The symptoms of AIDS appear when the CD4+ count drops below 300 cells/ml.
Which of the following is not generally responsible for HIV transmission?
B)sexual intercourse.
C)blood transfusions.
D)mother to fetus.
E)sharing needles.
Which of the following statements about HAART is NOT TRUE?
A)Viremia becomes undetectable in only half the treated cases.
B)Viremia returns if the medications are discontinued.
C)It eliminates the provirus.
D)It stops production of complete virions.
E)It costs more than $1,000 per month.
Which of the following are NOT characteristics of a successful HIV vaccine?
A)It must induce mucosal and bloodstream immunity.
B)It must stimulate cellular and humoral immunity.
C)It must stimulate an autoimmune response.
D)It must not be oncogenic.
E)All of the above are correct.
Which of the following is NOT being tested as an experimental vaccine for HIV?
A)Salmonella typhi engineered to express gp120.
B)purified matrix protein.
C)recombinant gp120.
D)vaccinia virus expressing reverse transcriptase.
E)canary pox virus containing HIV genes env, gag, and pol.
The definitive host of Toxoplasma gondii is
E)None of the above.
Which of the following is NOT a member of the herpesvirus family?
A)herpes simplex virus.
B)human immunodeficiency virus .
D)varicella zoster virus.
E)Epstein-Barr virus.
Approximately how many people in the world are infected with HIV?
A)1 million.
B)2 million.
C)10 million.
D)33 million.
E)100 million.
Which of the following diseases is most likely to cause encephalitis in AIDS patients?
B)mycobacterial disease.
E)None of the above.
What would be a viable criticism for the administration of an HIV vaccine to all people?
A)It would not stem the flow of HIV infections from monkeys to people.
B)It would make it difficult to determine if antibodies were produced in response to disease versus vaccination.
C)It would not stop new cases from occurring.
D)It could produce mutations that make the virus resistant to vaccination.
E)It would only work in 50% of the people treated.
What is the most probable explanation for the observation that AIDS is almost always accompanied by chlamydial urethritis, gonorrhea and syphilis?
A)All are transmitted by unprotected sexual activity.
B)The others are hidden until AIDS weakens the immune system.
C)All of these diseases are mainly spread by drug abuse using dirty needles.
D)They are synergists.
E)The organisms associated with chlamydial urethritis, gonorrhea and syphilis feed on dead Th cells.
AIDS has gotten much less public attention and media coverage today than it did from the 1980s through the 1990s. Many public health officials fear that this decrease in publicity could lead to the following consequence.
A)A decrease in AIDS funding.
B)Complacency about the spread of HIV.
C)People becoming less aware of the severity of HIV.
D)Less advocacy for AIDS education programs.
E)All of the above are concerns.
An educational brochure produced for terrorism emergency responders contained several strategies for reducing contact with AIDS. Which of the following strategies is NOT a necessary action for avoiding an HIV infection when handling injured people?
A)Use protective gloves when handling blood.
B)Wear disposable shoe coverings when working in areas with puddles of blood.
C)Wear a facemask when working with decomposing bodies.
D)Do not eat when handling objects contaminated with blood.
E)Wash hands thoroughly after working with injured people.
Research shows that cigarette smoking worsens the complications of AIDS. Which is the most probable reason for this observation?
A)Cigarette smoke reduces Th cells.
B)Interferons are stimulated by cigarette smoke.
C)Macrophage activity is accelerated by nicotine.
D)Smoking increases susceptibility to respiratory diseases.
E)Nicotine produces antibodies that reduce the effectiveness of the immune system.

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