Responding to Literature
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Judith Stanford on 9-11

Student Edition
Instructor Edition
Responding to Literature: Stories, Poems, Plays, and Essays, 5/e

Judith Stanford, Rivier College

ISBN: 007296278x
Copyright year: 2006

Table of Contents

* Works with an asterisk are new to this edition.

Alternate Contents by Genre
Alternate Contents by Additional Themes

CHAPTER 1. Why Read Literature"
Why Do You Read Literature"
Why Do We Read Literature"
Bridging the Gap
Responding to What You Read
        ROBERT FROST, The Road Not Taken
        Sample Student Response to "The Road Not Taken"
Considering Evidence to Support Your Response
Close Active Reading
        Sample Oral Response to "The Road Not Taken"
Keeping a Reading Journal
        Guidelines: Keeping a Reading Journal
        More Resources on Robert Frost and "The Road Not Taken"

CHAPTER 2. Joining the Conversation: Ways of Talking about Literature
        PATRICIA GRACE, Butterflies (short story)
        Responding to "Butterflies"
        LANGSTON HUGHES, Theme for English B (poem)
        Responding to "Theme for English B"
        More Resources on Langston Hughes and "Theme for English B"
        WENDY WASSERSTEIN, The Man in a Case (play)
        Responding to The Man in a Case
        E. B. WHITE, Education (essay)
The Vocabulary of Literature
Actions and Events
        Irony of Situation
        Box: Terms Related to Actions and Events
        Exercises: Actions and Events
        Characters: Listening and Observing
        Characters: Growing and Changing
        Characters: Point of View
                Author and Speaker
                People in Nonfiction
        Box: Terms Related to People
        Exercises: People
Places and Times
        Time and Place: The Cultures of the Work, the Writer, and the Reader
        Box: Terms Related to Places and Times
        Exercises: Places and Times
Words and Images, Sounds and Patterns
        Rhythm and Rhyme
        Figurative Language
        Verbal Irony
        Box: Terms Related to Words and Images, Sounds and Patterns
        Exercises: Words and Images, Sounds and Patterns
        Exercises: Ideas

CHAPTER 3. Continuing the Conversation: Considering Genre and Listening to Other Voices
Expectations: Short Fiction, Poetry, Drama, Nonfiction
        Distinctions: Short Fiction and Drama
        Distinctions: Poetry
        MARGARET ATWOOD, you fit into me (poem)
        Distinctions: Nonfiction
An Introduction to Short Fiction
        Early Forms of Fiction
                Fairy Tale
        Modern Short Fiction
                The Realistic Short Story
                The Nonrealistic Short Story
        A Word about Fiction and Truth
        Guidelines: Short Fiction
        An Introduction to Poetry
        Suggestions for Reading Poetry
        Types of Poetry
                Narrative Poetry
                Lyric Poetry
        Guidelines: Poetry
        An Introduction to Drama
        Suggestions for Reading Drama
                Stage Directions
                List of Characters
        Traditional Forms of Drama
                Greek Drama
                Elizabethan Drama
        Modern Forms of Drama
                Realistic Drama
                Theater of the Absurd
        Types of Drama
        Guidelines: Drama
        An Introduction to Nonfiction
        Suggestions for Reading Speeches
        Suggestions for Reading Letters
        Suggestions for Reading Documents
        Suggestions for Reading Journals and Diaries
        Suggestions for Reading Essays
        Guidelines: Nonfiction
        Considering Other Voices
        Authors' Commentaries and Interviews
        Scholarly Criticism
                Formalist Criticism
                Reader-Response Criticism
                Sociological Criticism
                Psychoanalytic Criticism
                New Historicism

CHAPTER 4. Writing About Literature
Writing and Critical Thinking
        DYLAN THOMAS, Do Not Go Gentle into That Good Night
        Responding to "Do Not Go Gentle into That Good Night"
        JOAN ALESHIRE, Slipping (Poem)
        Responding to "Slipping"
        Preparing to Write about Literature
                Understanding the Assignment
                Thinking about the Assignment
                Assignment Topics
Writing to Respond
        Topic 1
        Discovering Ideas: Journal Entries
        Considering Audience
        Narrowing the Topic
        Devising a Preliminary Thesis Statement
        Planning and Organizing
                "Changes," KAREN ANGSTROM (draft student paper)
        Revising Focus: Titles, Openings, Conclusions
        Editing Focus: "To Be," Expletives, Passive Voice
        Proofreading Focus: Fragments and Comma Splices
        Final Copy: Writing to Respond
                "Changes: For Better or Worse?" KAREN ANGSTROM (Student Paper)
        Guidelines: Writing a Response
Writing to Compare
        Topic 2
        Discovering Ideas: Discussion and Collaboration
        Guidelines: Strategies for Collaborative Work
        Considering Audience, Narrowing the Topic, and Devising a Preliminary Thesis
                "Responses: Raging Versus Slipping," WALTER JOHNSON (draft student paper)
        Revising Focus: Transitions, Development of Ideas
        Editing Focus: Nominalizations, Parallel Structure
        Proofreading Focus: Subject-Verb Agreement, Tense Agreement
        Final Copy: Writing to Compare
                "Responses: Raging Versus Slipping," WALTER JOHNSON (student paper)
        Guidelines: Writing a Comparison
Writing to Analyze
        Topic 3
        Discovering Ideas: Listing and Grouping
        Considering Audience, Narrowing the Topic, and Devising a Preliminary Thesis
        Planning, Organizing, and Drafting
                "Love and Loss in 'Slipping'," CATHERINE HUPEL (draft student paper)
        Revising Focus: Using and Explaining Examples
        Editing Focus: Word Choice
        Proofreading Focus: Misplaced Modifiers
        Final Copy: Writing to Analyze
                "Love and Loss in 'Slipping'," CATHERINE HUPEL (student paper)
        Guidelines: Writing an Analysis
Writing to Explicate
        Topic 4
        Discovering Ideas: Paraphrasing
        Considering Audience, Narrowing the Topic, and Devising a Preliminary Thesis
        Planning and Organizing
                "Explication: 'Do Not Go Gentle,'" MATTHEW CEJAK (Draft student paper)
        Revising Focus: Summarizing Versus Analyzing
        Guidelines: Preparing for a Writing Conference
        Matt Cejak's Second Draft
                "Explication: 'Do Not Go Gentle'," MATTHEW CEJAK (draft student paper)
        Editing Focus: Conciseness
        Proofreading Focus: Apostrophes, Quotation Marks to Indicate Words Used in a Special Way
        Final Copy: Writing to Explicate
                "The Power of Sound and Sight in 'Do Not Go Gentle'," MATTHEW CEJAK
        Guidelines: Writing an Explication
Writing to Evaluate
        Topic 5
        Discovering Ideas: Interviewing
                Joann Epstein's Journal Entry
        Considering Audience, Narrowing the Topic, and Devising a Preliminary Thesis
        Planning and Organizing
        Revising Focus: Logic
        Editing Focus: Integrating and Punctuating Quotations
        Proofreading Focus: Pronoun Reference, Pronoun Agreement, Treatment of Titles
        Final Copy: Writing to Evaluate
                "Love and Strength," JOANN EPSTEIN (student paper)
        Guidelines: Writing an Evaluation of Beliefs and Values

CHAPTER 5. Argument, Critical Thinking, and Research
Argument and Critical Thinking
        Definition of Argument
        Purpose for Argument
        Writing an Argument: The Process
                KATE CHOPIN, "The Storm"
        More Resources on Kate Chopin and "The Storm"
        Argument and Controversy
        Determining a Thesis for Argument
        Choosing a Topic for Argument
        Considering Audience
        Exploring Ways to Refine the Thesis and Support the Argument
                Close Reading
                Discussion and Interviews
                Library and On-line Research
Argument and Research
        The Research Question
                The Persuasive Research Paper
        Exploring the Research Question
                Resources for Research
        Guidelines: Locating Online Resources
                Evaluating Sources
                Print Sources
                Internet Sources
        Guidelines: Evaluating Internet Resources
        Planning an Argument and Formulating the Thesis
        Drafting an Argument
        Guidelines: Rational Appeals
                Logical Fallacies
        Revising an Argument
        Using and Documenting Sources
        Taking Notes
                Organizing Your Notes
                Summarizing and Paraphrasing
                Copying Quotations
                Sample Notecards
        Determining What Needs to Be Determined
                What Does Not Need to Be Determined
                Avoiding Plagiarism
        Using and Documenting Quotations from Literary Works: MLA Style
                Quoting from Poems
                Quoting from Plays
                Quoting from Fiction
        Incorporating Material from Sources into Your Paper
        Compiling a List of Works Cited
                Print Resources
                Oral Communications
                Media and Performance Sources
                Online Sources
        Guidelines: Preparing the List of Works Cited
        Sample of Completed Researched Argument
                "A Closer Look at Bobinôt," JOSH LACHANCE (student paper)

CHAPTER 6. Innocence and Experience
        On Reading Literature Thematically: Critical Thinking
        NATHANIEL HAWTHORNE, Young Goodman Brown
        More Resources in Nathaniel Hawthorne and "Young Goodman Brown"
        JAMES JOYCE, Araby
        More Resources on James Joyce and "Araby"
        WAKAKO YAMAUCHI, And the Soul Shall Dance
        More Resources on Wakako Yamauchi
        LOUISE ERDRICH, The Red Convertible
        W.D. WETHERELL, The Bass, The River and Sheila Mant
        WILLIAM BLAKE, London
        GERARD MANLEY HOPKINS, Spring and Fall
        A. E. HOUSMAN, When I Was One and Twenty
        COUNTEE CULLEN, Incident
        *GWENDOLYN BROOKS, We Real Cool
        More Resources on Gwendolyn Brooks and "We Real Cool"
        JOHN UPDIKE, Ex-Basketball Player
        SEAMUS HEANEY, Mid-Term Break
        GARY SOTO, Oranges
        *NAOMI SHIHAB NYE, Rain
        Commentary: CAROLYN HEILBRUN, The Character of Hamlet's Mother
        *Commentary: LAURA BOHANNAN, Shakespeare in the Bush
        *Photo Essay: NOW AND THEN: Hamlet
        *Film Connection: Hamlet
        LANGSTON HUGHES, Salvation
        More Resources on Langston Hughes
        MAYA ANGELOU, Graduation in Stamps
        Connections: Innocence and Experience

CHAPTER 7. Roots, Identity, and Culture
        RICHARD WRIGHT, The Man Who Was Almost a Man
        JAMES BALDWIN, Sonny's Blues
        RAYMOND CARVER, Cathedral
        JOSE ARMAS, El Tonto del Barrio
        TONI CADE BAMBARA, The Lesson
        PAUL LAWRENCE DUNBAR, We wear the mask
        LUCILLE CLIFTON, Quilting
        *LUCILLE CLIFTON, in the inner city
        WOLE SOYINKA, Telephone Conversation
        MARTIN ESPADA, Coca-Cola and Coco Frío
        CATHY SONG, The Youngest Daughter
        JUDITH ORTIZ COFER, Latin Women Pray
        *N. SCOTT MOMADAY, New World
        *SHERMAN ALEXIA, JR., Evolution
        ATHOL FUGARD, "Master Harold"...and the Boys
        More Resources on Athol Fugard
        *ERVIN BECK "Fugard's 'Master Harold'...and The Boys
        *BRIAN SUTTON "Fugard's 'Master Harold'...and The Boys (A Response to Ervin Beck)
        CHIEF SEATTLE, My People
        FREDERICK DOUGLASS, Learning to Read and Write
        More Resources on Frederick Douglass and "Learning to Read and Write"
        Connections: Roots, Identity, and Culture
        Suggestions for Extended Connections among Chapters
        Suggestions for Collaborative Learning
        Web Connections

CHAPTER 8. Love and Hate
        CHARLOTTE PERKINS GILMAN, The Yellow Wallpaper
        More Resources on Charlotte Perkins Gilman and "The Yellow Wallpaper"
        Commentary: CHARLOTTE PERKINS GILMAN, Why I Wrote "The Yellow Wallpaper"
        EDITH WHARTON, Roman Fever
        *SUSAN GLASPELL, A Jury of Her Peers
        More Resources on Susan Glaspell and "A Jury of Her Peers" and Trifles
        NADINE GORDIMER, Town and Country Lovers
        RITA DOVE, Second-Hand Man
        More Resources of Rita Dove
        SAPPHO, To me he seems like a god
        WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE, Let me not to the marriage of true minds
        More Resources on William Shakespeare and "Let me not to the marriage of true minds"
        JOHN DONNE, The Sun Rising
        More Resources on John Donne and "The Sun Rising"
        ANDREW MARVELL, To His Coy Mistress
        APHRA BEHN, The Willing Mistress
        CHRISTOPHER MARLOWE, The Passionate Shepherd to His Love
        SIR WALTER RALEIGH, The Nymph's Reply to the Shepherd
        *W. S. MERWIN, Separation
        *KRISTINE BATEY, Lot's Wife
        DONALD HALL, The Wedding Couple
        TESS GALLAGHER, The Hug
        *KITTY TSUI, A Chinese Banquet
        HENRIK IBSEN, A Doll's House
        *SUSAN GLASPELL, Trifles
        C.S. LEWIS, We Have No "Right" to Happiness
        *JOAN DIDION, Marrying Absurd
        Connections: Men and Women
        Suggestions for Extended Connection among Chapters

CHAPTER 9. Families
        TILLIE OLSON, I Stand Here Ironing
        JOYCE CAROL OATES, Shopping
        ALICE WALKER, Everyday Use
        MARY HOOD, How Far She Went
        *GISH JEN "Who's Irish?"
        THEODORE ROETHKE, My Papa's Waltz
        GWENDOLYN BROOKS, The Mother
        SHARON OLDS, The Possessive
        SYLVIA PLATH, Metaphors
        DONALD HALL, My son, my executioner
        NEAL BOWERS, Driving Lesson
        ROBERT HAYDEN, Those Winter Sundays
        Commentary: DAVID HUDDLE, The "Banked Fires" of Robert Hayden's "Those Winter Sundays"
        *URSULA K. LEGUIN, The Old Falling Down
        *LOUSE GLÜCK, Terminal Resemblance
        *GAIL MAZUR, Family Plot, October
        SOPHOCLES, Oedipus Rex
        *LANGSTON HUGHES, Soul Gone Home
        *RAYMOND CARVER, My Father's Life
        *JUDITH ORTIZ COFER, A Partial Remembrance of a Puerto Rican Childhood
        *PHOTO ESSAY: NOW AND THEN: Images of Families
        Connections: Families
        Suggestions for Extended Connections among Chapters
        Suggestions for Collaborative Learning
        Web Connections

CHAPTER 10. Nature
        *STEPHEN CRANE, The Open Boat
        ERNEST HEMINGWAY, Hills Like White Elephants
        EUDORA WELTY, A Worn Path
        Commentary: EUDORA WELTY, Is Phoenix Jackson's Grandson Really Dead?
        *LESLIE MARMON SILKO, The Man to Send Rain Clouds
                Moritake, Fallen petals rise
                Sôkan, If only we could
                Meisetsu, City People
                Kyoshi, The Snake
        *WILLIAM BLAKE, The Tyger
        WILLIAM WORDSWORTH, The world is too much with us
        *JOHN KEATS, La Belle Dame Sans Merci
        GERARD MANLEY HOPKINS, God's Grandeur
        *JEAN TOOMER, November Cotton Flower
        *H.D. (HILDA DOOLITTLE), Sheltered Garden
        ELIZABETH BISHOP, The Fish
        WILLIAM STAFFORD, Traveling through the dark
        MARY OLIVER, A Certain Sharpness in the Morning Air
        JOHN MILLINGTON SYNGE, Riders to the Sea
        BARRY HOLSTUN LOPEZ, Landscape and Narrative
        *ANNIE DILLARD, The Deer at Providencia
        *VIRGINIA WOOLF, The Death of the Moth
        Connections: Nature
        Suggestions for Extended Connections among Chapters
        Suggestions for Collaborative Learning
        Web Connections

CHAPTER 11. War and Power
        AMBROSE BIERCE, An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge
        FRANK O'CONNOR, Guests of the Nation
        Commentary: STANLEY RENNER, The Theme of Hidden Powers: Fate vs. Human Responsibility in "Guests of the Nation"
        CYNTHIA OZICK, The Shawl
        TIM O'BRIEN, The Things They Carried
        *BHARATI MUKHERJEE, The Management of Grief
        *PERCY BYSSHE SHELLEY, Ozymandias
        *WILLIAM BUTLER YEATS, The Second Coming
        THOMAS HARDY, The Man He Killed
        WILFRED OWEN, Dulce et Decorum Est
        RANDALL JARRELL, Gunner
        DENISE LEVERTOV, What Were They Like
        YUSEF KOMUNYAKAA, Facing It
        CAROLYN FORCHE, The Colonel
        STEPHEN DUNN, On Hearing the Airlines Will Use a Psychological Profile to Catch Potential Skyjackers
        *GALWAY KINNELL, When the Towers Fell
        SOPHOCLES, Antigone
        ANDREW LAM, Goodbye, Saigon, Finally
        BARBARA KINGSOLVER, And Our Flag Was Still There
        *NAOMI SHIHAB NYE, To Any Would-Be Terrorists
        *PHOTO ESSAY: NOW AND THEN: Images of War
        *FILM CONNECTION: Three Kings
        Connections: War and Power
        Suggestions for Extended Connections among Chapters
        Suggestions for Collaborative Learning
        Web Connections

CHAPTER 12. Technology and Ethics
        *NATHANIEL HAWTHORNE, The Birthmark
        KAY BOYLE, The Astronomer's Wife
        *B. TRAVEN, Assembly Line
        *DON DeLILLO, Videotape
        *GEORGE SAUNDERS, My Flamboyant Grandson
        *EMILY DICKINSON, I like to see it lap the Miles
        More Resources on Emily Dickinson
        *WALT WHITMAN, When I Heard the Learn'd Astronomer
        More Resources on Walt Whitman
        *WILLIAM JAY SMITH, Galileo Galilei
        *ADRIENNE RICH, Power
        *MARGARET ATWOOD, The City Planners
        More Resources on Margaret Atwood
        *CHARLES BUKOWSKI, maybe we'll see...
        *MARGE PIERCY, The Market Economy
        *ELLEN WOLFE, Amniocentesis
        *MICHAEL RYAN, TV Room at the Children's Hospice
        *MARGARET EDSON, Wit
        *LLOYD ROSE, Review of Wit
        *ALVIN KLEIN, A Professor's Passions in Life and Death
        *STEPHEN JAY GOULD, The Median Isn't the Message
        *REBECCA MEAD, Eggs for Sale
        Connections: Technology and Ethics
        Suggestions for Extended Connections among Chapters
        Suggestions for Collaborative Learning
        Web Connections

CHAPTER 13. Death
        CHEWING BLACKBONES, Old Man and Old Woman
        EDGAR ALLAN POE, The Black Cat
        More Resources on Edgar Allan Poe
        KATHERINE ANNE PORTER, The Jilting of Granny Weatherall
        WILLIAM FAULKNER, A Rose for Emily
        Commentary: WILLIAM FAULKNER, On the Meaning of "A Rose for Emily"
        ALICE WALKER, To Hell with Dying
        JOHN DONNE, Death, be not proud
        More Resources on John Donne and "Death, be not proud"
        EMILY DICKINSON, Apparently with no surprise
        EMILY DICKINSON, I heard a Fly buzz—when I died—
        EMILY DICKINSON, The Bustle in a House
        A. E. HOUSMAN, To An Athlete Dying Young
        e. e. cummings, buffalo bill's
        More Resources on e. e. cummings
        LANGSTON HUGHES, Night Funeral in Harlem
        More Resources on Langston Hughes
        THEODORE ROETHKE, Elegy for Jane
        DENISE LEVERTOV, During a Son's Dangerous Illness
        SEAMUS HEANEY, Punishment
        *WILLIAM TREMBLAY, The Lost Boy
        MICHAEL LASSELL, How to Watch Your Brother Die
        HARVEY FIERSTEIN, On Tidy Endings
        ELIZABETH KÜBLER-ROSS, On the Fear of Death
        BARBARA HUTTMAN, A Crime of Compassion
        Connections: Death
        Suggestions for Extended Connections among Chapters
        Suggestions for Collaborative Learning
        Web Connections

CHAPTER 14. Connections: Art and Poetry
        Topics for Discussion and Writing
        Sample Assignment and Student Paper
                Death's Image, JANICE MOORE (student paper)
        RANDALL JARRELL, The Knight, Death, and the Devil
                Albrecht Durer's Knight, Death, and the Devil
        ANNE SEXTON, The Starry Night
                Vincent Van Gogh's The Starry Night
        W. H. AUDEN, Musée des Beaux Arts
                Pieter Breughel the Elder's Landscape with the Fall of Icarus
        WILLIAM CARLOS WILLIAMS, The Great Figure
                Charles Henry Demuth's I Saw the Figure 5 in Gold
        DAVID RAY, A Midnight Diner by Edward Hopper
                Edward Hopper's Nighthawks
        SAMUEL YELLEN, Nighthawks
                Edward Hopper's Nighthawks
        DONALD HALL, The Scream
                Edvard Munch's The Scream
        NATALIE SAFIR, Matisse's Dance
                Henri Matisse's Dance
        WALLACE STEVENS, The Man With the Blue Guitar
                Pablo Picasso's The Old Guitarist
        PATRICIA HAMPL, Woman before an Aquarium
                Henri Matisse's Woman before an Aquarium
        ADAM ZAGAJEWSKI, Edgar Degas: The Millinery Shop
                Edgar Degas's The Millinery Shop
        JON STALLWORTHY, Toulouse-Lautrec at the Moulin Rouge
                Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, At the Moulin Rouge
        *MARTHA HOLLANDER, The Phantom Cart by Salvador Dalí, 1933
                Salvador Dali, The Phantom Cart
        *JOHN HOLLANDER, Rooms By the Sea
                Edward Hopper, Rooms by the Sea
        *KARL KIRCHWEY, Dialogue
                Albert Giacometti, Hands Holding the Void
        *MARILYN CHANDLER McENTRYRE, Jesus and theWoman at the Well
                Rembrant van Rijn, Christ and the Woman of Samaria

CHAPTER 15. Four Poets, Then and Now
        Making Connections
        Timeline: Key Events in the Lives of Three American Poets
                If I can stop one Heart from breaking
                Wild Nights—Wild Nights!
                There's a certain Slant of light
                I'm Nobody! Who are you?
                "Heaven"—is what I cannot reach!
                After great pain, a formal feeling comes—
                The Brain—is wider than the Sky—
                This is my letter to the World
                The Soul selects her own Society—
                I felt a Cleaving in my Mind—
                Tell all the Truth but tell it slant—
        More Resources on Emily Dickinson
                Mending Wall
                Home Burial
                "Out, out—"
                Nothing Gold Can Stay
                Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening
                Acquainted with the Night
                Desert Places
        More Resources on Robert Frost
        A Critical Casebook on Robert Frost
                "Mending Wall," DONALD CUNNINGHAM
                From The Figure a Poem Makes, ROBERT FROST
                From The Indispensable Robert Frost, DONALD J. GREINER
                From One Long, Wild Conversation: Robert Frost as Teacher, JAY PARINI
                *"The Place Is the Asylum": Women and Nature in Robert Frost's Poetry, KATHERINE KEARNS
                *The History Teacher
        *Going Out For Cigarettes
                *My Life
                *The Names
        More Resources on Billy Collins
        *RITA DOVE
                *Grape Sherbet
                *Poem in Which I Refuse Contemplation
        More Resources on Rita Dove
        Connections: American Poets: Then and Now

Glossary of Literary Terms
Index of First Lines
Index of Authors, Titles, and Subjects
Stanford - Responding to Literature, 5e book cover

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