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Psychodynamic Theories
Jung: Analytical Psychology
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Chapter Outline


I. Overview of Jung's Analytical Psychology
Carl Jung believed that people are extremely complex beings who possess a variety of opposing qualities, such as introversion and extraversion, masculinity and femininity, and rational and irrational drives.

II. Biography of Carl Jung
Carl Jung was born in Switzerland in 1875, the oldest surviving child of an idealistic Protestant minister and his wife. Jung's early experience with parents (who were quite opposite of each other) probably influenced his own theory of personality. Soon after receiving his medical degree he became acquainted with Freud's writings and eventually with Freud himself. Not long after he traveled with Freud to the United States, Jung became disenchanted with Freud's pansexual theories, broke with Freud, and began his own approach to theory and therapy, which he called analytical psychology. From a critical midlife crisis, during which he nearly lost contact with reality, Jung emerged to become one of the leading thinkers of the 20th century. He died in 1961 at age 85.

III. Levels of the Psyche
Jung saw the human psyche as being divided into a conscious and an unconscious level, with the latter further subdivided into a personal and a collective unconscious.
A. Conscious
Images sensed by the ego are said to be conscious. The ego thus represents the conscious side of personality, and in the psychologically mature individual, the ego is secondary to the self.
B. Personal Unconscious
The unconscious refers to those psychic images not sensed by the ego. Some unconscious processes flow from our personal experiences, but others stem from our ancestors' experiences with universal themes. Jung divided the unconscious into the personal unconscious, which contains the complexes (emotionally toned groups of related ideas) and the collective unconscious, or ideas that are beyond our personal experiences and that originate from the repeated experiences of our ancestors.
C. Collective Unconscious
Collective unconscious images are not inherited ideas, but rather they refer to our innate tendency to react in a particular way whenever our personal experiences stimulate an inherited predisposition toward action. Contents of the collective unconscious are called archetypes.
D. Archetypes
Jung believed that archetypes originate through the repeated experiences of our ancestors and that they are expressed in certain types of dreams, fantasies, delusions, and hallucinations. Several archetypes acquire their own personality, and Jung identified these by name. One is the persona-the side of our personality that we show to others. Another is the shadow-the dark side of personality. To reach full psychological maturity, Jung believed, we must first realize or accept our shadow. A second hurdle in achieving maturity is for men to accept their anima, or feminine side, and for women to embrace their animus, or masculine disposition. Other archetypes include the great mother (the archetype of nourishment and destruction); the wise old man (the archetype of wisdom and meaning); and the hero, (the image we have of a conqueror who vanquishes evil, but who has a single fatal flaw). The most comprehensive archetype is the self; that is, the image we have of fulfillment, completion, or perfection. The ultimate in psychological maturity is self-realization, which is symbolized by the mandala, or perfect geometric figure.

IV. Dynamics of Personality
Jung believed that the dynamic principles that apply to physical energy also apply to psychic energy. These forces include causality and teleology as well as progression and regression.
A. Causality and Teleology
Jung accepted a middle position between the philosophical issues of causality and teleology. In other words, humans are motivated both by their past experiences and by their expectations of the future.
B. Progression and Regression
To achieve self-realization, people must adapt to both their external and internal worlds. Progression involves adaptation to the outside world and the forward flow of psychic energy, whereas regression refers to adaptation to the inner world and the backward flow of psychic energy. Jung believed that the backward step is essential to a person's forward movement toward self-realization.

V. Psychological Types
Eight basic psychological types emerge from the union of two attitudes and
four functions.
A. Attitudes
Attitudes are predispositions to act or react in a characteristic manner. The two basic attitudes are introversion, which refers to people's subjective perceptions, and extraversion, which indicates an orientation toward the objective world. Extraverts are influenced more by the real world than by their subjective perception, whereas introverts rely on their individualized view of things. Introverts and extraverts often mistrust and misunderstand one another.
B. Functions
The two attitudes or extroversion and introversion can combine with four basic functions to form eight general personality types. The four functions are (1) thinking, or recognizing the meaning of stimuli; (2) feeling, or placing a value
on something; (3) sensation, or taking in sensory stimuli; and (4) intuition, or perceiving elementary data that are beyond our awareness. Jung referred to
thinking and feeling as rational functions and to sensation and intuition as irrational functions.

VI. Development of Personality
Nearly unique among personality theorists was Jung's emphasis on the second half of life. Jung saw middle and old age as times when people may acquire the ability to attain self-realization.
A. Stages of Development
Jung divided development into four broad stages: (1) childhood, which lasts from birth until adolescence; (2) youth, the period from puberty until middle life, which is a time for extraverted development and for being grounded to the real world of schooling, occupation, courtship, marriage, and family; (3) middle life, which is a time from about 35 or 40 until old age when people should be adopting an introverted attitude; and (4) old age, which is a time for psychological rebirth, self-realization, and preparation for death.
B. Self-Realization
Self-realization, or individuation, involves a psychological rebirth and an integration of various parts of the psyche into a unified or whole individual. Self-realization represents the highest level of human development.

VII. Jung's Methods of Investigation
Jung used the word association test, dreams, and active imagination during the process of psychotherapy, and all these methods contributed to his theory of personality.
A. Word Association Test
Jung used the word association test early in his career to uncover complexes embedded in the personal unconscious. The technique requires a patient to utter the first word that comes to mind after the examiner reads a stimulus word. Unusual responses indicate a complex.
B. Dream Analysis
Jung believed that dreams may have both a cause and a purpose and thus can be useful in explaining past events and in making decisions about the future. "Big dreams" and "typical dreams," both of which come from the collective unconscious, have meanings that lie beyond the experiences of a single individual.
C. Active Imagination
Jung also used active imagination to arrive at collective images. This technique requires the patient to concentrate on a single image until that image begins to appear in a different form. Eventually, the patient should see figures that represent archetypes and other collective unconscious images.
D. Psychotherapy
The goal of Jungian therapy is to help neurotic patients become healthy and to move healthy people in the direction of self-realization. Jung was eclectic in his choice of therapeutic techniques and treated old people differently than the young.

VIII. Related Research
Although Jungian psychology has not generated large volumes of research, some investigators have used the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator to examine the idea of psychological types. Some research suggests that extraverts and introverts have different preferences in their choice of partners. Other researchers have reported that personality type is related to academic performance and success.

IX. Critique of Jung
Although Jung considered himself a scientist, many of his writings have more of a philosophical than a psychological flavor. As a scientific theory, it rates average on its ability to generate research, but very low on its ability to withstand falsification. It is about average on its ability to organize knowledge but low on each of the other criteria of a useful theory.

X. Concept of Humanity
Jung saw people as extremely complex beings who are a product of both conscious and unconscious personal experiences. However, people are also motivated by inherited remnants that spring from the collective experiences of their early ancestors. Because Jungian theory is a psychology of opposites, it receives a moderate rating on the issues of free will versus determinism, optimism versus pessimism, and causality versus teleology. It rates very high on unconscious influences, low on uniqueness, and low on social influences.