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12.1 The Digestive System
The human digestive system is an extended tube with specialized parts between two openings, the mouth and the anus.

Food is ingested and then digested to small molecules that are absorbed. Indigestible materials are eliminated.
1. What stimulates the gallbladder to release bile to the small intestine?

2. What are some of the ways the small intestine is adapted for increased absorption?
Essential Study Partner
Human Digestion
Mouth and Esophagus
Small Intestine
Large Intestine

Art Quizzes
Specialization of Digestive Tract
Stomach and Duodenum
Stomach Mucosa - Gastric Glands
Action of Gastrin
Digestive System Variations (1)
Digestive System Variations (2)

Animation Quizzes
Digestion Mouth to Stomach
Digestion Stomach
Stomach Digestion
Digestion Stomach to Small Intestine
Small Intestine Digestion

General Biology Weblinks
Anatomy & Physiology

Study Guide
Human Digestive System: Structure and Function

Labeling Exercises
Digestive System (1) (30.0K)
Digestive System (2) (43.0K)
Digestive System (3) (46.0K)
Mouth (41.0K)
Teeth (47.0K)
Swallowing (49.0K)
Wall of the Digestive Tract (32.0K)
Anatomy of Small Intestine (46.0K)
12.2 Three Accessory Organs
The pancreas, the liver, and the gallbladder are accessory organs of digestion because their activities assist the digestive process.
3. How does the pancreas assist digestion?

4. How does the liver act as "gatekeeper" to the blood?
Essential Study Partner
Accessory Organs
Liver & Pancreas

Art Quizzes
Actions of Insulin and Glucagon

Animation Quizzes
Formation of Gallstones

Labeling Exercise
Hepatic Lobules (47.0K)
12.3 Digestive Enzymes
The products of digestion are small molecules, such as amino acids, fatty acids, and glucose, that can cross plasma membranes.

The digestive enzymes are specific and have an optimum temperature and pH at which they function.
5. Where does the digestion of carbohydrates begin in the body?

6. Why is hydrochloric acid needed for digestion to occur in the stomach?
Essential Study Partner
Enzymes and Hormones

Art Quizzes
Absorption of Protein and Carbohydrate
Absorption of Fats
12.4 Nutrition
Proper nutrition supplies the body with energy, nutrients, and all vitamins and minerals.
7. Why are whole grains a healthier dietary choice than refined and milled flours?

8. What is the main difference between the modern diet of native Hawaiians compared with the ancient diet of the same people?
Essential Study Partner
Vitamins & Minerals
Food Needs
Food Production
Food Quality

Case Studies
Power Lunch of the Future

Inquiry into LifeOnline Learning Center with Powerweb

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