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14.1 Lymphatic System
The lymphatic vessels form a one-way system, which transports lymph from the tissues and fat from the lacteals to certain cardiovascular veins.

The lymphoid organs (red bone marrow, spleen, thymus, lymph nodes, and tonsils) play critical roles in defense mechanisms.
1. In what ways does the lymphatic system help to contribute to homeostasis?

2. How do the lymph nodes and spleen participate in defending the body against disease?
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Lymph System
Lymph Movement
Lymph Nodes
Lymph Organs

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Immune System Evolution

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Lymphatic System

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Lymphatic System (33.0K)
The Lymphoid Organs (29.0K)
Thymus Gland (38.0K)
Lymph Node (39.0K)
Spleen (37.0K)
Bone Marrow (37.0K)
14.2 Nonspecific Defenses
Immunity consists of nonspecific and specific defenses to protect the body against disease.

Nonspecific defenses consist of barriers to entry, the inflammatory reaction, natural killer cells, and protective proteins.
3. How do barriers to entry help keep us healthy?

4. What is the role of neutrophils and macrophages in the inflammatory reaction?
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Nonspecific Immunity
Defense Mechanism Overview

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Phagocytic Cells
Complement Proteins
Antiviral Defense

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The Immune System: The First Line of Defense
The Immune System: The Second Line of Defense
14.3 Specific Defenses
Specific defenses require two types of lymphocytes: B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes.
5. What is an antigen?

6. What are the targets of B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes?
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Specific Immunity
Antibody-Mediated (Humoral) Immunity
Cell Mediated Immunity

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Activation of T Cells

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Clonal Selection
T-Cell Function

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The Immune System: The Third Line of Defense
14.4 Induced Immunity
Induced immunity for medical purposes involves the use of vaccines to achieve long-lasting (active) immunity and the use of antibodies to provide temporary (passive) immunity.
7. Why does active immunity last longer than passive immunity?

8. What are monoclonal antibodies?
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Monoclonal Antibody Production

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AIDS Vaccine
14.5 Immunity Side Effects
While immunity preserves life, it is also responsible for certain undesirable effects, such as allergies, blood type reactions, tissue rejection, and autoimmune diseases.
9. How do allergy shots help prevent the effects of allergic reactions?
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Blood Groupings

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Allergic Reaction

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ABO Blood Types

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