The lymphatic system consists of _______.
|A)||lymphatic vessels and lymphoid organs|
|B)||all of the plasma component of the bloodstream|
|C)||all fluids inside the body's cells|
|D)||all liquids in the body whether inside cells or in spaces between tissues|
The lymphatic system _______.
|A)||takes up excess tissue fluid and returns it to the bloodstream|
|B)||absorbs fats in the intestinal villi and transports them to the bloodstream|
|C)||defends the body against disease|
|D)||All of the above are correct.|
The movement of lymph within lymphatic vessels is dependent upon _______.
|A)||residual blood pressure forcing the plasma through the blood vessels|
|B)||suction from the contracting lymph nodes|
|C)||skeletal muscle contraction and the action of one-way valves|
|D)||active transport of lymph by cilia lining the lymphatic system|
|E)||ameboid movement of the cellular component of the lymph, primarily the T-cells that "travel"|
Lymph is prevented from flowing backwards by _______.
|B)||suction from the contracting lymph nodes|
|D)||cilia lining the lymphatic system|
The lymphatic system is _________.
|A)||a two-way transport system with fluids and cells moving both directions|
|B)||a continuous closed circulation running parallel to the arteries and veins|
|C)||a one-way system collecting the lymph from body tissues and spaces and reintroducing it to the bloodstream|
|D)||a one-way system collecting lymph from body spaces and soaking it into the body cells|
Tissue fluid in the lymphatic system is called ________.
The thoracic duct serves
|A)||the lower extremities.|
|C)||the left arm.|
|D)||all of the above.|
The thoracic and right lymphatic ducts return lymph to the ________.
The subclavian veins are cardiovascular veins in the abdomen.
________ is localized swelling caused by accumulation of tissue fluid.
|A)||Immune deficiency disease|
Lymph flows from lymphatic capillaries into ever-larger lymphatic vessels and finally to a lymphatic duct.
Each nodule of a lymph node contains a sinus filled with _______.
|A)||lymphocytes and macrophages|
|C)||red blood cells|
|D)||lymph causing edema|
Which of the following is NOT a lymphoid organ:
|A)||red bone marrow|
Only red blood cells originate in the red bone marrow.
All bones in an adult have red bone marrow.
The red bone marrow consists of a network of connective tissue fibers called reticular fibers.
The tonsils and adenoids (pharyngeal tonsils) are composed of partly encapsulated lymph nodules.
The spleen is located in the lower right thoracic cavity just above the diaphragm.
The spleen's sinuses are filled with _______.
A spleen nodule contains ________.
|A)||the factory that produces platelets|
|B)||red pulp and white pulp|
|C)||a reservoir of glucose stored as glycogen|
Red pulp contains only red blood cells.
Lymph is cleansed in lymph nodes and blood is cleansed in the spleen.
White pulp contains mostly _______.
|B)||red blood cells|
The thymus is located _______.
|A)||in the neck|
|B)||in the upper left abdominal cavity just beneath the diaphragm|
|C)||along the trachea behind the sternum|
|D)||along the intestinal wall|
The thymus is smaller in children than in adults.
The thymus secretes ________.
|B)||hormones that mature the red blood cells|
|D)||lymph and is the main "lymph factory"|
|E)||thymosin, a hormone thought to aid in maturation of T lymphocytes|
T lymphocytes mature in the ________.
|B)||red bone marrow|
|D)||lymph nodes throughout the body|
Immunity is the ability of the body to defend itself against ________.
|A)||infectious agents including bacteria and viruses|
|D)||all of the above|
The nonspecific defenses are ___________.
|A)||barriers to entry, the inflammatory reaction, natural killer cells, and protective proteins|
|B)||antibodies, antigens, and antimatter|
|C)||the spleen and thymus|
|D)||allergies, edema and regurgitation|
Barriers to entry of microbes include __________.
|A)||oil skin secretions and stomach acids|
|B)||normal harmless bacteria that prevent pathogens from taking up residence|
|C)||mucous membranes that line the respiratory, digestive and urinary tracts|
|D)||skin that lines the outer surface of the body|
|E)||all of the above help bar entry by microbes|
The stomach has a basic pH inhibiting growth of bacteria.
The ________ reaction is a series of events occurring whenever the skin is broken due to a minor injury.
________ are molecules initiating nerve impulses resulting in pain.
Histamine and kinins cause capillaries to constrict and become less permeable.
Any break in the skin can allow microbes to enter the body.
How can neutrophils and monocytes reach an infection site from the bloodstream?
|A)||the blood vessels rupture at a site of infection|
|B)||neutrophils and monocytes are amoeboid and can pass through capillary walls|
|C)||they are small and diffuse across membranes just like food and gas molecules.|
|D)||they move upstream in the lymph system|
|E)||the portable T lymphocyte differentiates into neutrophils and monocytes when it arrives at the site of infection|
What can happen to a bacterium that crosses the skin barrier and enters tissues?
|A)||histamine will poison bacteria|
|B)||neutrophils phagocytize the bacteria|
|C)||bacteria liberate a growth factor that in turn increases the numbers of white blood cells that attack bacteria|
|D)||all human tissues reject the bacterium and destroy it with lysosomes|
When monocytes leave the bloodstream, they differentiate into ________.
Some tissues have ______ that routinely act as scavengers, devouring old blood cells and other debris.
Pus indicates that ______________.
|A)||body tissues are dying|
|B)||the body is trying to overcome infection|
|C)||too much lymph has built up|
|D)||the inflammatory response has failed to defend against bacterial invasion|
Complement is activated when ________ .
|A)||the inflammatory response has failed to defend against bacterial invasion|
|B)||antibodies have failed to defend against bacterial invasion|
|C)||microbes enter the body|
|D)||interferon is produced by viruses|
Complement proteins bind to the surface of microbes already coated with antibodies, and release chemicals that attract phagocytes to the scene.
A virus-infected cell produces and secretes _______.
A/an ________ is usually a protein or polysaccharide chain of a glycoprotein molecule that the body recognizes as "non-self."
The immune system is chemically able to tell "self" from "non-self" based on a lock-and-key receptor-antigen fit.
B lymphocytes mature in the bloodstream.
T lymphocytes mature in the ________ .
|B)||lymph in the general lymphatic system|
B cells give rise to plasma cells which produce ________.
Antibodies bind with antigens in a lock-and-key manner.
T cells produce antibodies.
Certain T cells attack and destroy antigen-bearing cells.
There is a different lymphocyte type for each possible antigen.
A plasma cell is a mature B cell that mass produces ________.
A B cell does not clone until its antigen is present.
When B cells undergo clonal expansion, they produce plasma cells and memory B cells.
Defense by T cells is called antibody-mediated immunity.
Humoral immunity is so called because antibodies are present in the ________.
|B)||red blood cells|
|C)||blood and lymph|
|D)||upper arm bone or "humerus"|
The most common type of antibody is a protein molecule with two arms.
The main antibody type in circulation is _______.
________ is the largest antibody.
IgA antibodies are found in _______.
|A)||body secretions such as saliva and milk|
|B)||blood and on mast cells in tissues|
IgG antibodies _________.
|A)||are responsible for allergic reactions|
|B)||stimulate complement production|
|C)||bind to pathogens their toxins|
IgM antibodies _________.
|B)||activate complement and clump cells|
|C)||attack bacterial toxins|
|D)||are responsible for allergic reactions|
IgA antibodies attack microbes and bacterial toxins.
________ antibodies are responsible for allergic reactions.
There is/are ________ main types of T cell(s).
Which of the following is NOT a type of T cell?
|A)||cytotoxic T cells|
|B)||helper T cells|
|C)||memory T cells|
|D)||plasma T cell|
Cytotoxic T cells attack and destroy ________.
|C)||cells that produce toxins or poisons|
Cytotoxic T cells storage vacuoles contain _______.
Perforin molecules function to ________.
|A)||perforate a cell membrane|
|B)||stimulate production of complement|
|C)||trigger production of interferon|
|D)||label a cell for attack by cytotoxic T cells|
Perforin molecules form holes in plasma membranes, allowing _________.
|A)||water and salt to enter a cell|
|B)||vital cell contents to leak out|
|C)||macrophages to phagocytize cells|
|D)||IgG to bind with foreign proteins|
________ T cells are the only T cells involved in cell-mediated immunity.
HIV that causes AIDS infects _______.
|A)||helper T cells|
|B)||cytotoxic T cells|
|C)||suppressor T cells|
|D)||memory T cells|
Helper T cells regulate immunity by increasing the response of other immune cells.
When exposed to an antigen, helper T cells enlarge and secrete messenger molecules called ________.
|A)||stimulate white blood cell formation|
|C)||depress antibody production|
|D)||make the body more susceptible to cancer|
________ are antibodies of one specific type, all produced by plasma cells derived from the same B cell, and capable of identifying unique cells and infectious agents.
With the human ABO blood types in the below transfusions, which person would safely receive blood lacking foreign antigens?
|A)||a type A person received type B blood|
|B)||a type B person received type A blood|
|C)||a type O person received type B blood|
|D)||a type A person received type AB blood|
|E)||a type A person received type O blood|
Why is hemolytic disease of the newborn (Rh-conflict) described as a likely problem only when the mother is Rh-negative and the father is Rh-positive?
|A)||a type Rh-negative father is not possible since it is sex-linked|
|B)||the type Rh-negative is so rare that Rh-negative fathers are too uncommon|
|C)||a type Rh-negative fetus in an Rh-positive mother does not expose the mother to any new antigens and therefore does not trigger any immune response|
|D)||this was just the way the textbook gave the possible example and the reverse situation is just as much a problem|
When an immune system overreacts to an antigen or forms antibodies to substances that are usually NOT recognized as foreign, it results in _______.
|A)||immune deficiency disease|
Myasthenia gravis, multiple sclerosis, lupus erythematosus, and rheumatoid arthritis are examples of ________.
|A)||immune deficiency diseases|
|B)||normal inflammatory reactions|
|D)||failure of the B cells to defend the body|
|E)||failure of the T cells to defend the body|
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