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16.1 Urinary System
The urinary system consists of organs that produce, store, and rid the body of urine.

The kidneys excrete metabolic wastes and maintain the water-salt and the acid-base balance of the blood within normal limits.
1. How does the reflex to urinate differ in young children when compared with older children and adults?

2. How does the urinary system help to maintain homeostasis?
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Nitrogenous Wastes
Urinary System
Human Excretion
Urine Elimination

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Anatomy & Physiology

Labeling Exercises
Human Urinary System (43.0K)
16.2 Kidneys
Kidneys have a macroscopic (gross) anatomy and a microscopic anatomy.

Urine is produced by many microscopic tubules called nephrons.
3. What are the three regions of the kidney and which is continuous with the ureter?

4. What adaptations of the proximal convoluted tubule maximize reabsorption?
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Kidney Function

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Anatomy of Kidney and Lobe (29.0K)
Nephron Anatomy (1) (43.0K)
Nephron Anatomy (2) (40.0K)
16.3 Urine Formation
Like many physiological processes, urine formation is a multistep process.
5. List the three steps of urine formation.

6. How is it possible for an otherwise healthy person to excrete small amounts of glucose in urine?
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Urine Formation
Glomerular Filtration
Tubular Reabsorption & Secretion

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Transport Processes in Mammalian Nephron

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Kidney Function (1)
Kidney Function (2)
16.4 Maintaining Water-Salt Balance
The kidneys are under hormonal control as they regulate the water-salt balance of the body.
7. What portions of the nephron and kidney are involved in the reabsorption of water?

8. If an individual drinks very little fluid on a hot day, what happens to the quantity of ADH released by the posterior pituitary?
Essential Study Partner
Water Balance
Electrolyte Balance
Urine Concentration

Art Quizzes
Homeostasis of Blood Volume and Pressure
Osmotic Balance - Freshwater Fish
16.5 Maintaining Acid-Base Balance
The kidneys excrete hydrogen ions and reabsorb bicarbonate ions to regulate the pH of the blood.
9. How does the buffer/breathing system compare with the ability of the kidneys to maintain acid-base balance in terms of speed and magnitude of the effect on pH?
Essential Study Partner
Acid-Base Balance

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