19.1 Anatomy and Physiology of Bones
Bone is a living tissue; therefore, it develops and undergoes repair.The fetal skeleton is cartilaginous, and then it is replaced by bone.The adult bones undergo remodeling - they are constantly being broken down and rebuilt.
1. What two types of connective tissue are associated with adult bones? Answer2. What three types of bone cells are involved in the continual remodeling of bone? Answer
19.2 Bones of the Skeleton
The bones of the skeleton are divided into those of the axial skeleton and those of the appendicular skeleton.
Joints are classified according to their anatomy, and only one type is freely movable.
3. List five functions of the skeleton. Answer
4. Give the three classifications of joints and tell which one is capable of free movement. Answer
19.4 Mechanism of Muscle Fiber Contraction Following nervous stimulation, a chain of events leads to muscle fiber contraction.Nervous stimulation requires a neuromuscular junction where the stimulus is passed from nerve fiber to muscle fiber.
6. What is the role of the sarcoplasmic reticulum in muscle fiber contraction? Answer7. How does a muscle fiber receive the message to contract? Answer
19.5 Whole Muscle Contraction In the body, muscles have tone, vary in the strength of contraction, and can be isometric.Cellular respiration, creatine phosphate breakdown, and fermentation are three sources of ATP for muscle contraction.
8. Describe the three phases of a muscle twitch as recorded as a myogram. Answer9. Which of the three sources of energy for muscle contraction supplies the greatest amount of energy? Answer