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19.1 Anatomy and Physiology of Bones
Bone is a living tissue; therefore, it develops and undergoes repair.

The fetal skeleton is cartilaginous, and then it is replaced by bone.

The adult bones undergo remodeling - they are constantly being broken down and rebuilt.
1. What two types of connective tissue are associated with adult bones?

2. What three types of bone cells are involved in the continual remodeling of bone?
Essential Study Partner
Bone Structure
Bone Development & Growth
Remodeling & Repair
Calcium Homeostasis

General Biology Weblinks
Anatomy & Physiology

Case Study
19.2 Bones of the Skeleton
The bones of the skeleton are divided into those of the axial skeleton and those of the appendicular skeleton.

Joints are classified according to their anatomy, and only one type is freely movable.
3. List five functions of the skeleton.

4. Give the three classifications of joints and tell which one is capable of free movement.
Essential Study Partner
Bone Function
Vertebral Column
Thoracic Cage
Pectoral Girdle
Upper Limb
Pelvic Girdle
Lower Limb
Full Skeleton
Classes of Joints
Types of Movement
Selected Joints

Art Quiz
Joints - Freely Movable

Labeling Exercises
Bones of the Pectoral Girdle and Arm (24.0K)
Bones of the Pelvic Girdle and Leg (21.0K)
19.3 Skeletal Muscles
Skeletal muscles work in antagonistic pairs to move bone in opposite directions.
5. Is the movement a body part dependent on one muscle alone? Explain.
Essential Study Partner
Muscular System Introduction
Body Musculature
Head and Neck Muscles
Trunk Muscles
Pelvic Floor Muscles
Upper Limb Muscles
Lower Limb Muscles

Labeling Exercises
Skeletal Muscles (21.0K)
Attachment of Skeletal Muscles (36.0K)
19.4 Mechanism of Muscle Fiber Contraction
Following nervous stimulation, a chain of events leads to muscle fiber contraction.

Nervous stimulation requires a neuromuscular junction where the stimulus is passed from nerve fiber to muscle fiber.
6. What is the role of the sarcoplasmic reticulum in muscle fiber contraction?

7. How does a muscle fiber receive the message to contract?
Essential Study Partner
Muscle Cell Function
Neuromuscular Junction
Sliding Filament Theory

Art Quizzes
Muscle Fiber
Interaction of Thick and Thin Filaments
Cross-Bridge Cycle in Muscle Contraction

Animation Quizzes
Muscle Contraction Action Potential
Striated Muscle Contraction
Detailed Striated Muscle Contraction
Actin-Myosin Crossbridges
19.5 Whole Muscle Contraction
In the body, muscles have tone, vary in the strength of contraction, and can be isometric.

Cellular respiration, creatine phosphate breakdown, and fermentation are three sources of ATP for muscle contraction.
8. Describe the three phases of a muscle twitch as recorded as a myogram.

9. Which of the three sources of energy for muscle contraction supplies the greatest amount of energy?
Essential Study Partner
Muscle Twitch Physiology

Art Quiz
Muscle Stimulation Pattern
19.6 Exercise and Muscle Contraction
Muscle fibers differ and help us perform in one sport as compared to another.

Exercise has many health benefits aside from strength and endurance of muscles.
10. What sports are better suited to individuals with more slow-twitch fibers?

11. List some of the ways that exercise is beneficial to health.
Case Study
Sports & Fitness

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