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2.1 Basic Chemistry
All matter is composed of elements, each having one type of atom.

Atoms react with one another, forming molecules, and compounds.
1. In what ways do the atoms of one element differ from those of another element?

2. When do ionic and covalent bonds form?
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Basic Chemistry

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Electron Energy Levels

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Atomic Structure
Covalent Bond
Ionic Bond
2.2 Water and Living Things
The existence of living things is dependent on the characteristics of water.

The hydrogen ion concentration in water changes when acids or bases are added to water.
3. List two features of water molecules that give rise to all the beneficial attributes of water.

4. What are acids and bases, and how do living things regulate pH?
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Water Properties
Acid Rain

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Molecular Structure of Water
Water as a Solvent
pH Scale
Acid Precipitation

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The Special Properties of Water
2.3 Organic Molecules
Macromolecules are polymers that arise when their specific monomers (unit molecules) join together.
5. Describe an organic molecule.

6. What types of bonds to organic molecules contain?
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Organic Chemistry

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Four Biologically Important Molecules
2.4 Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates function as a ready source of energy in most organisms.

Glucose is a simple sugar; starch, glycogen, and cellulose are polymers of glucose.

Cellulose lends structural support to plant cell walls.
7. List several functions of carbohydrates in animal and plant cells.

8. What monomer makes up carbohydrates?
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2.5 Lipids
Lipids are varied molecules.

Fats and oils, which function in long-term energy storage, are composed of glycerol and three fatty acids.

Sex hormones are derived from cholesterol, a complex ring compound.
9. How do saturated fatty acids differ from unsaturated fatty acids?

10. How does the structure of fats differ from that of phospholipids?
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Saturated and Unsaturated Fats
2.6 Proteins
Proteins help form structures (e.g., muscles and membranes) and function as enzymes.

Proteins are polymers of amino acids.
11. What are some of the many functions of proteins in cells?

12. Why does denaturation of a protein cause it to stop functioning?
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How Proteins Function

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Protein Structure and Function

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Peptide Bond
2.7 Nucleic Acids
Nucleic acids are polymers of nucleotides.

The human genome is composed of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). DNA specifies the correct ordering of amino acids into proteins, with RNA as intermediary.
13. Are the building blocks of nucleic acids the same for RNA and DNA?

14. What is the role of the nucleotide ATP in the cell?
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Nucleic Acids

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DNA Structure

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