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Crystals, Ions, and Solutions

When you have completed this chapter you should be able to:

1. Distinguish between crystalline and amorphous solids.
2. List the four classes of crystalline solids and identify the nature of the bonds in each class.
3. Explain the origin of van der Waals forces.
4. Distinguish between solvent and solute.
5. Define the solubility of a substance.
6. Describe what is meant by unsaturated, saturated, and supersaturated solutions.
7. Discuss how the solubilities of gases and solids in water vary with temperature and, in the case of gases, with pressure.
8. Compare the behavior of solvents of polar and nonpolar liquids.
9. Give some of the reasons why an ionic crystal is believed to dissociate into ions when it dissolves.
10. Explain how dissociation occurs.
11. Discuss some of the chief causes of water pollution.
12. Define acid and distinguish between strong and weak acids.
13. Define base and distinguish between strong and weak bases.
14. Describe the pH scale.
15. Explain what happens when an acid and a base neutralize each other.
16. Describe how to prepare a salt.
17. Give some examples of acids, bases, and salts.

The Physical Universe, 11eOnline Learning Center

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