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The Rock Cycle

When you have completed this chapter you should be able to:

1. List in order of abundance the four chief elements in the earth's crust.
2. Explain why the silicates can vary so much in composition and crystal structure.
3. Distinguish between rocks and minerals.
4. Briefly describe quartz, feldspar, mica, the ferromagnesian minerals, the clay minerals, and calcite.
5. Distinguish among igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks.
6. Compare the origins of the fine-grained and coarse-grained igneous rocks and give several examples of each type.
7. Describe several fragmental sedimentary rocks.
8. State the main characteristics of limestone. How is it formed?
9. Describe several metamorphic rocks and give their origins.
10. Distinguish among the four kinds of earthquake waves.
11. Explain the evidence that suggests the division of the earth into core, mantle, and crust.
12. Give several reasons for the belief that earth's core is largely molten iron.
13. Identify the main source of heat that flows out of the earth's interior.
14. Compare the earth's magnetic field with the magnetic field of a bar magnet, and explain why no actual permanent magnet can give rise to the earth's field.
15. Describe the chemical and mechanical weathering of rocks.
16. Discuss the development of a valley carved by a river.
17. Discuss the development of a valley carved by a glacier.
18. Define groundwater, saturated zone, water table, spring, and aquifer.
19. Discuss the deposition of stream and glacier sediments.
20. Describe the processes by which sediments become rock.
21. Describe the events that occur in a typical volcanic eruption.
22. Indicate on a map of the world the regions where volcanoes and earthquakes occur most often.
23. Give the reasons why granite is believed to have hardened from a molten state underground.
24. Draw a diagram that shows the rock cycle.

The Physical Universe, 11eOnline Learning Center

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