What do many psychologists believe is the basic process of moral development?
Piaget and Kohlberg agree that young children are oriented toward obedience. However, Piaget believed this is true because children ______, whereas Kohlberg believed it is because children ______
|A)||depend on authority; feel guilty for their wrongdoing|
|B)||feel guilty for their wrongdoing; depend on authority|
|C)||avoid punishment and gain rewards; respect authority|
|D)||respect authority; avoid punishment and gain rewards|
In Kohlberg's __________ stage of moral development, individuals blindly accept rules and regulations in order to preserve a smooth-running society.
|A)||morality of contract, individual rights, and democratically accepted law|
|B)||naive hedonistic and instrumental orientation|
|C)||authority and social-order-maintenance|
|D)||good boy morality|
Children rated by their peers and teachers as more ______ have been found to be more mature in social judgments.
Which of the following actions would a 5-year-old rate as more wrong?
|A)||cheating at a game|
|B)||addressing a teacher by first name|
|C)||a boy entering a girls' bathroom|
|D)||eating with one's fingers|
Which of the following prosocial behaviors would likely be acquired last?
|A)||comforting another child who is in distress|
|B)||sharing one's food with a sibling|
|C)||giving a band-aid to mommy for her cut finger|
|D)||becoming agitated at another child's distress.|
Adina has twin children, Ariel (a daughter) and Adam (a son). Which child would we expect to display more empathy?
|C)||Neither (because they are twins).|
|D)||They would be equally empathetic.|
One method parents often use to help their child learn to engage in prosocial behavior is to ask the child to assist a parent with household tasks. This strategy has been found to
|A)||increase only U.S. children's prosocial behavior.|
|B)||increase children's prosocial behavior.|
|C)||decrease children's prosocial behavior cross-culturally.|
|D)||decrease U.S. children's prosocial behavior, but increase the prosocial behavior of Asian children.|
From preschool years to elementary school years children typically shift from using _______ aggression to using _______ aggression.
Which of the following strategies has been found to be ineffective in controlling aggression?
|A)||Draining off excess aggressive energy by acting aggressively in a safe situation|
|B)||Rewarding responses that are incompatible with aggression|
|C)||Have the aggressive children generate a greater number of possible alternative responses to aggression|
|D)||Making children aware of the negative consequences of their aggression|
Which theory emphasizes moral judgments when examining moral development issues?
When asked why she doesn't hit her sister, Hilary replies, "So my mom won't make me sit in the quiet chair." Which of Kohlberg's stages of moral development does her answer exemplify?
|A)||Good boy morality|
|B)||Morality of self-accepted moral principles|
|C)||Naive hedonistic and instrumental orientation|
|D)||Obedience and punishment orientation|
What types of activities facilitated more mature moral judgments according to Kohlberg?
Which of the following are most viewed as arbitrary, relative, and can vary across communities and cultures?
_________ is the ability to inhibit or direct one's actions to conform to social or moral rules.
Studies of prosocial behavior in children have found which of the following characteristics to be correct?
|A)||The form of the child's altruistic behavior changes across time.|
|B)||The expression of the child's altruistic behavior remains the same.|
|C)||Children require more direct cues in order to respond appropriately as they become older.|
|D)||All children exhibit similar emotional reactions to another's distress.|
From her research on how children's thinking about prosocial activities changes across development, Eisenberg concluded that
|A)||prosocial reasoning and moral reasoning were identical processes.|
|B)||prosocial reasoning and moral reasoning were related but independent.|
|C)||prosocial reasoning and moral reasoning showed no similarities until adulthood.|
|D)||prosocial reasoning and moral reasoning were negatively related.|
Two of the most important determinants of altruism are _________ and _________ abilities.
Billie is the grade-school bully. He regularly harasses the other students, particularly the younger ones. He usually threatens to beat them up if they don't pay him $.50 a day. Billie is using _________ aggression.
When compared to parents of non-aggressive children, parents of aggressive children monitor their children's behavior