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Multiple Choice
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In developmental research, obtaining a representative sample is crucial in order to
A)interpret the results of the study.
B)apply the results to other groups.
C)determine if the independent variable had an effect.
D)determine if the dependent variable had an effect.

Which of the following is NOT a good strategy for obtaining accurate parental reports of their children’s behavior?
A)Instruct the parents to reflect upon the general aspects of their children’s behavior.
B)“Beeping” the parents to record the ongoing activities of their children at various times.
C)Having the parents keep structured diaries of their children’s behavior.
D)Train parents to record specific behaviors.

Which is an effective way of increasing the truthfulness of children’s reports?
A)Offering them a reward, such as a piece of candy, for telling the truth.
B)In easy to understand language, explaining to them the importance of honesty.
C)Interviewing them without their parents present.
D)Interviewing them with their parents present.

A researcher wanted to study family interactions using direct observation. The researcher simply watched the family for several hours before recording any information to be used as data. Why did the researcher simply observe before collecting data? The researcher wanted to
A)become acquainted with the family in order to be included in their interactions.
B)minimize the family’s tendency to act as the researcher had hypothesized.
C)minimize the family’s tendency to act in socially acceptable ways.
D)practice his/her information gathering technique before using it to obtain actual data.

Which of the following is NOT a specific method for obtaining directly observed data?
A)specimen record
B)procedural sampling
C)time sampling
D)event sampling

Which correlation values suggest the strongest relationship between two variables?

One should be cautious using a correlational approach to research because it does not imply
B)a relationship between the variables
C)a representative sample
D)accurate self-reports

In order to retain control over the independent variable but allow for greater generalizability, researchers often use which type of experiment?
A)Laboratory experiment
B)Natural experiment
C)Field experiment
D)Case study

Deceiving the child in order to mask the true intent of the research most directly conflicts with which of the following ethical considerations? The right to
A)be fully informed.
B)voluntary withdrawal.
C)knowledge of the results.
D)confidentiality of their research data.

Giving a particular child’s results to another individual or agency most directly conflicts with which of the following ethical considerations? The right to
A)full compensation.
B)knowledge of results.
C)confidentiality of their research data.
D)be fully informed.

The type of sample a researcher uses impacts most upon
A)to whom the results and conclusions can legitimately apply.
B)the types of questions that can be asked.
C)the research design being employed.
D)the research strategy developed.

When deciding which method to use for collecting information about children, the primary factor should be
A)questions being asked by the researchers.
B)age of the child/children.
C)size of the sample.
D)research design itself.

Parental reports are most accurate when they focus on
A)retrospective behaviors and events.
B)current practices and behaviors.
C)the developmental history of the child.
D)changes in a particular behavior pattern or problem.

Observational studies of children and parents indicate that parental behaviors towards children
A)are consistent across situations.
B)are more socially desirable at home than in an unfamiliar setting.
C)are more socially desirable in an unfamiliar setting than at home.
D)tend to be more stereotypical at home than in public.

The correlational approach to studying children’s behavior allows one to conclude
A)which variable caused the outcome of events.
B)cause-and-effect relationships.
C)which research strategy is most effective in answering the research question.
D)whether or not a relationship exists between two variables and how strong that relationship is.

In a well-designed laboratory experiment the only difference between the experimental and control groups should be the
A)dependent variable.
B)number of participants.
D)independent variable.

The key characteristic of field experimentation is
A)the child willingly enters the experimenter’s lab.
B)that it occurs in both laboratory and non-laboratory settings.
C)that it occurs without any manipulation on the part of the experimenter.
D)that the experimenter enters the child’s world.

The preferred means of studying child development is increasingly
A)relying on case study methods.
B)relying on longitudinal methods.
C)relying on naturalistic experiments.
D)relying on multiple methodological approaches.

The research design that involves using different groups of children of different ages at a given point in time is a
A)naturalistic design.
B)cross-sequential design.
C)cross-sectional design.
D)longitudinal design.

A distinct advantage the longitudinal method has over the cross-sectional method is
A)it is less affected by participant attrition.
B)it is more flexible.
C)it is less costly
D)the effect of early experience on later behavior can be examined.

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