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Testing Your Knowledge
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1. Why is FISH a more precise way of identifying chromosomes than stains?

2. Human chromosome 3 is metacentric, and chromosome 22 is acrocentric. What are two ways that these two chromosomes differ?

3. What are the minimal requirements to construct a chromosome?

4. How are linked genes inherited differently than genes that are located on different chromosomes?

5. How are X-linked genes inherited differently in male and female humans?

6. How is sex determination different in fruit flies than it is in humans?

7. What does X inactivation accomplish?

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Additional Questions

1. How can a woman who is a carrier of a sex-linked disorder experience symptoms of the disorder?

2. A man who has ichthyosis fears passing the trait to his son. Why shouldn’t he worry? Can his daughters inherit the condition from him?

3. Distinguish between the following:

  • a. Heterochromatin and euchromatin.
  • b. A centromere and a telomere.
  • c. An aneuploid and a polyploid.
  • d. A monosomy and a trisomy.
  • e. A Robertsonian translocation and a reciprocal translocation.
  • 4. Describe an individual with each of the following chromosome constitutions. Mention the person’s sex and possible phenotype. (The number refers to the number of chromosomes, and the “X”s and “O”s to the sex chromosome constitution.)

  • a. 46, XXX
  • b. 45, XO
  • c. 47, XX trisomy 21
  • d. 47, XXY
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