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Testing Your Knowledge
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1. What did Linnaeus, Darwin, and Mayr contribute to the meaning of the term “species”?

2. Describe the relationships among the species that the letters represent in the following evolutionary tree diagrams: Insert tree art TA 16.1

3. Explain how researchers compared mitochondrial DNA sequences to:

  • a. detect speciation among tigers
  • b. clarify the relationship between the platypus and other mammals
  • c. detect divergence of populations of tamarin monkeys and rats in South America
  • d. identify the cause of adaptive radiation of songbirds in North America
  • 4. Whenever a particular two types of animals mate, pregnancy occurs, but the embryos stop developing when they are just balls of cells. Is this prezygotic or postzygotic reproductive isolation?

    5. Distinguish among allopatric, parapatric, and sympatric speciation and give an example of each.

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    Additional Questions

    1. What change would have to occur for Sumatran tigers to be considered a separate species from the other types of tigers?

    2. People opposed to the teaching of evolution sometimes present gradualism and punctuated equilibrium as if they are opposing mechanisms that biologists argue about. How is the view a misrepresentation?

    3. State two causes of extinction.

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