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Testing Your Knowledge
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1. Define the following terms:

  • a. atom
  • b. element
  • c. molecule
  • d. compound
  • e. isotope
  • f. ion
  • 2. The vitamin biotin contains 10 atoms of carbon, 16 of hydrogen, 3 of oxygen, 2 of nitrogen, and 1 of sulfur. What is its molecular formula?

    3. Distinguish among the types of chemical bonds.

    4. Distinguish among the terms solute, solvent, and solution.

    5. What is the physical basis of pH?

    6. Why are buffer systems important in organisms?

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    Additional Questions

    1. Arrange the terms in the following lists by size, from smallest to largest:

  • a. proton, electron, molecule, atom
  • b. fructose, cellulose, sucrose
  • c. protein, amino acid, amino group, dipeptide
  • d. hydrogen, zinc, carbon, oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen
  • 2. Cite three illustrations of the concept of emergent properties (review Chapter 1 if necessary) that appear in this chapter.

    3. List four characteristics of water that make it essential for life.

    4. What do a protein and a nucleic acid have in common? What are two ways that a protein differs from a complex carbohydrate and a lipid? What do all three types of macromolecules have in common?

    5. How do the functions of RNA and DNA differ?

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