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Testing Your Knowledge
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1. Give five examples that illustrate how bacteria are important to other types of organisms.

2. Distinguish between:

  • a. a phototroph and a chemotroph
  • b. bacteria and archaea
  • c. a halophile and a methanogen
  • d. a gram-negative and a gram-positive bacterium
  • e. transformation and transduction
  • f. an autotroph and a heterotroph
  • g. vertical and horizontal gene transfer
  • h. an obligate anaerobe and a facultative anaerobe
  • 3. What structures do prokaryotic cells have that are not found in eukaryotic cells?

    4. What are the criteria that microbiologists use in classifying prokaryotes?

    5. How can the polymerase chain reaction be useful in studying moneara/prokaryotes that do not survive in laboratory culture?

    6. List Koch’s postulates and explain why they are important.

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    Additional Questions

    1. Why do scientists know little about prokaryotic diversity relative to plant and animal diversity?

    2. State whether the following infections are airborne, directly transmitted, passed by arthropods, or in food or water.

  • a. Gonorrhea.
  • b. Cholera.
  • c. Salmonellosis.
  • d. Lyme disease.
  • e. Strep throat.
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